The goals of upbringing are what? Methods of education
The goals of upbringing are the main issue of pedagogy, which determines the content, methods and outcome of the impact on the child. It is on their right choice that the person will grow, what personal qualities and character he will have.
What is the purpose and objectives of education?
First you need to understand what these concepts mean. It is generally accepted that the goal is the result you are striving for. The tasks, in turn, answer the question, with the help of what actions this can be achieved.
Any education is always directed at something, regardless of whether it is expressed in the smallest acts or large-scale state programs. Influence on the child continuously, constantly directed to the future and involves a certain result.
The goal of education is a predictable result in the preparation of the younger generation for life in society, in its formation and personal development. It can be achieved by a teacher in the course of his work only through the fulfillment of more specific tasks.
For example, the teacher wants to raise students' awareness of HIV infection. That is, as a result, children should have an idea about this disease. To do this, the teacher will need to solve several tasks: to tell what HIV is, how it is transmitted, how to prevent infection, to introduce the survey options, and to check the level of assimilation of the material.
As you can see, if you correctly determine the goals and objectives of education, you can competently build your work. This will provide an opportunity to understand the development of what qualities, skills and skills to contribute, as well as what knowledge to form.
General and individual goals of education
If we talk about the goals of education, then first and foremost identify individual and common. The humanistic direction in pedagogy stands for their alignment and unity, which, of course, is correct and necessary in the learning process.
The goal of education is common if it is aimed at shaping the qualities of all people. We can say that this is a kind of social order for preparing the younger generation for the performance of certain functions, which society needs most at this stage of development. It is also called the goal-ideal, which combines the political, economic, legal, biological, moral and aesthetic notions of a harmoniously developed, perfect man and his meaning in social life.
The individual goal of education is the development of a specific, individually taken individual. This focuses attention for the reason that each person is unique and unique, with his own special set of opportunities and aspirations. That is why it is important to select the line of development on an individual basis.
Man as a member of society depends on him, obeys his laws, norms and requirements. Therefore, an obligatory condition in determining the result of education is the combination of individual and common goals.
Factors determining the choice of the goal of education
First of all, the choice of the goal of education determines the need of society in people of a certain type. On the other hand, the result of the impact on the child will reflect the achieved level of development of the society. The proof is the fact that in various socio-economic formations there were goals of upbringing. This is illustrated by the example of changing priorities in such epochs as primitive communal, slave-owning, feudal and capitalist.
So, in prehistoric society, all children were taught to cook food, make clothes and hunt animals. That is, the goal of education was to equip with knowledge and skills that are simply necessary for survival. Under the slave system, the priority was given to the role of the owner, noble children were taught to conquer foreign lands and defend their own. Simple people brought up their generation, based on the value of obedience and physical labor. In the era of feudalism instilled the qualities of a gentleman and a knight-virtue. The period of capitalism developed active and active people-entrepreneurs. At the same time, at all times, such eternal values as good, truth and beauty were put high.
Also, for the most part, the goal of education is determined by the policy and ideology of the state. In any country, child development is always aimed at strengthening the existing social relations. In addition, the choice of educational goals is influenced by social development, scientific and technological progress, the possibilities of educational institutions and the formation of pedagogical science. In addition to these factors, mental maturation and the physiological characteristics of man are of no small importance.
All this, of course, simply needs to be taken into account in the work of the teacher and in determining the outcome of the child's development.
Modern purposes of education
Proceeding from the foregoing, it became clear what kind of citizen they wanted to receive in this or that era. But what about the purpose of education in the modern world?
At present, the emphasis is on the humanistic direction. According to him, it is necessary to create conditions for the formation of a fully developed and harmonious personality. It is today that it is a guideline for formulating the goals and tasks of pedagogy.
Humanistic direction believes that for comprehensive development it is important to focus on mental, physical, labor, economic, moral, ecological and aesthetic education.
The growth of a child intellectually can be called a key one. It was the mind that helped humanity to separate from the animal kingdom, create all the benefits of civilization and ensure social and economic progress. During the assimilation of knowledge, children receive certain skills and skills, learn to understand the surrounding reality, the phenomena of nature, try to build their lives, using in practice the received theoretical information.
Physical education is also an important goal of education. It promotes health promotion and the formation of such qualities as courage, discipline, perseverance, determination and responsibility. Labor education instills love for any work, whether it is domestic or professional. Knowing the basics of environmental disciplines will help conserve the environment and understand to children how to reduce the consumption of natural resources.
Aesthetic education develops the ability to create beautiful things around them with their own hands. Children already at an early age are forming views, tastes and ideals, which are based on national characteristics and achievements of civilization. The goal of moral education is the creation of a highly moral person who understands the beliefs, habits of behavior and norms accepted in the society. It is important for children to teach respectful attitude to society, people, to themselves and to work. The younger generation should appreciate honesty, responsibility, decency, charity and other qualities that a citizen of the country must possess.
Tasks of education in an educational institution
The goal is achieved by solving specific tasks. And the sphere of education is of great importance in the education of children. Pre-school institutions have the following tasks:
- Protection of life, strengthening of mental and physical health.
- Carrying out corrective exercises to eliminate the shortcomings in development.
- Education in children, taking into account age characteristics of love for nature, family, home, a sense of citizenship and respect for others.
- To carry out harmonious development in different directions: cognitive-speech, physical, social-personal and artistic-aesthetic.
- Interact with the children's families and provide them with advisory assistance for the full-fledged formation of children.
The goals and objectives of the education of school education are as follows:
- Admission of students to the national culture, the values of the people, language, customs and traditions.
- Development of physical data, inculcation of love for a healthy lifestyle.
- Creation of conditions for professional self-determination of children.
- Prevention of crimes and offenses by minors.
- Promoting the manifestation of the potential of gifted children.
- Support for the independence, initiative and creativity of schoolchildren through the creation of children's movements and student self-government.
- Carrying out educational work through interaction of teachers, pupils and parents.
It is worth noting that the solution of these problems is relevant for any age group. However, the content and priority of the goal of education and training are different at different periods of school life.
What tasks does parenting solve?
Probably, no one doubts that the family has the strongest influence on the upbringing of the child. In an environment of close people, parents and relatives all personal qualities are formed.
Family education is a complex system, since a number of factors are of great importance. This is the biological health of parents and the child, heredity, material and economic status, social status, lifestyle, place of residence, family relationships. In each case, all these factors manifest themselves in different ways and are intertwined in a unique chain, creating specific conditions for upbringing. Proceeding from this, it can be said that families understand the goals of upbringing in their own way. This, unfortunately, is not always the right idea, and it often harms children.
The family as a unit of society must perform several functions so that the child grows up to be a healthy and full-fledged person:
- Creation of maximum conditions for the development of children.
- Socio-economic and psychological protection of the child.
- Training useful skills that are aimed at helping loved ones and self-service.
- Transfer of successful experience of creating a family and raising children.
- Formation of self-esteem and value of your "I".
When implementing these tasks in the family, it is important for parents to remember that the most complete disclosure of children's potential can be through the use of activities that are attractive for the child.
Principles of Education
What is the principle? This is the initial or fundamental position by which the teacher is guided, when he organizes the process of education. The goal is determined in advance, and it can not be achieved unless certain principles are observed.
So, what should the pedagogue be guided in his activity?
- Targeted impact on the child.
- The personal approach to everyone.
- Carry out education in the learning process.
- Take into account age and individual characteristics.
- Make demands, but respect the personality of the child.
- Link education with life.
Teachers and parents in implementing the principles, goals and objectives can use different methods of education.
What are methods of upbringing?
We begin with the definition of this concept. Methods are specific ways and ways of influencing behavior, consciousness, will and feelings. In another way, it can be said that these are methods of managing activities in the process of which the development and self-realization of the individual are carried out. These are some moves that help to achieve the goal. Methods of education should be used wisely. The right choice guarantees success, a successful result.
Factors of choice of methods of education
- Aims and objectives of child development.
- The content of the educational process.
- Accounting for age and personality characteristics. The same goal can be achieved by different methods depending on the maturity of the pupil.
- Allotted time. In a limited time, hard methods are used that will quickly act.
- Pedagogical literacy. The teacher or parents should rely on their knowledge and choose only those methods with which they are familiar, in which they are completely sure.
- Expected consequences. When choosing a method, one must be able to foresee the result to which it can lead. In case of an unfavorable outcome, it is necessary to abandon the way to influence the child and find another way that would help to realize the goal of educating a person.
- Conditions of education. These include the style of influence, the climate in the team and other factors.
Methods of education
Traditionally, four groups of methods are distinguished: persuasion, training (exercises), stimulation of activity and self-education. Let's consider each species in more detail.
Methods of persuasion assume a conscious perception of certain values, which forms personal beliefs, views, ideals and influences the development of relations. With this method of influence, the following techniques are used: exhortation, story, clarification, conversation, instruction, advice, suggestion and demand.
Accustoming is the repeated repetition of any actions with the realization of the results and the goal of education. This, as the great teacher A. S. Makarenko wrote, is an exercise in the right action. To do this, you must regularly perform the same thing, so that the action becomes a habitual form of behavior. In the course of his life, the child has many habits. And good ones should be encouraged and turned into personal qualities. For the development of young children it is important to use game situations in which participants can understand the essence of what is happening and try themselves in different roles.
When stimulating activities it is important to show perspectives, create a mood of joy and expectation of reward as a result of activities. With this method of upbringing, you can use several techniques. This encouragement (praise, the handing of something tangible), punishment (disapproval, blame, remarks, condemnation, reprimand) and competition.
Self-education is the main way of development
This method is associated with situations where the child himself learns to understand what the main goal of education, put it before him, to foresee the results and move to them. Children simply need to be pushed to this way of development. A person is initially active from birth and is capable of self-education. Carrying it out, the child can learn, self-educate and improve.
To help children in this difficult matter, teachers and parents need only outline a general plan and individual actions in the work. It is important to emphasize self-esteem, self-analysis, self-control, self-report and personal obligations. With this method of upbringing, the child develops moral and volitional qualities of the personality, which in the future will greatly help in life.
Summing up, it can be said that the leading place in the development of children is occupied by tasks, goals, principles and methods. Their right choice will help to form a harmonious and comprehensive personality.