The content of education: the concept, principles, objectives and methods
The content of education is a set of goals, activities, methods, directions, and other parameters that characterize a purposeful influence on the personality of the child. This takes into account the influence of external factors and individual characteristics of the child's character.
The definition of
The content of education is a system that includes a set of beliefs, personal qualities, behaviors and other traits that should be taught to the child in the process of purposeful influence. The basis is laid for the following ideas:
- the reality of the goals (human development in accordance with their abilities and inclinations)
- joint activities (study programmes of activities, search topics and pedagogic methodologies are implemented in close cooperation with students)
- self-determination (the child should be given certain freedom of action in search of Hobbies, and the setting position in life)
- personal orientation (at the center of the educational process should be child, his feelings and interests)
- voluntary (work with children should be organized in such a way that they expressed their desire to acquire certain knowledge and skills)
- collectivity (in the process of educating children should be prepared to life in society).
The content of education can be expressed in its classification. It can be described as follows:
- In accordance with the object:
- economic (explanation of the basic laws of financial relations)
- civil (learning the basic rules of life in society)
- intellectual (the laws of logical thinking.)
- international (knowledge of the culture and life of different peoples, and the development of respect and tolerance towards them)
- legal (substantive aspects of the law)
- moral (teaching, standards of behaviour and morality)
- aesthetic (education involves instilling the love of the beautiful)
- Patriotic (to develop the sense of responsibility to the Homeland).
- In accordance with the contents:
- employment (teaching the basic techniques of work and report information about the most common professions)
- intellectual education (development of thinking skills, expanding horizons)
- physical (endurance and learning the basics of a healthy lifestyle).
- In accordance with the form:
- confessional (religious).
- Relative caregiver:
- democratic (the teacher respects the point of view of students)
- free (not restricted to the actions of the pupils)
- authoritarian (rigid teaching style, exact matching program).
The content, principles of education
The formation of the child's personality occurs under the influence of teachers, parents and other stakeholders. The content of education can be expressed in its basic principles, which read as follows:
- The social nature of education means that children should understand the importance of work in human life and society. The child from an early age should learn to respect other people's work, and perform some actions independently. In addition, the content of social education should be structured in such a way as to develop children's intolerance of irresponsibility, idleness and other negative phenomena.
- In the process of interaction with the child, the caregiver must rely on positive emotions, as well as examples on the basis of which children should develop certain traits and qualities. It is extremely important to take an interest in the future of the child, not just a formal performance of duties.
- Humanization of education is, first and foremost, in a human and sympathetic attitude of teachers to pupils. You must also show respect for the views of children, even if it is at variance with the standard. In the process of teaching a child not to be demeaned or forced to do anything. To the educational process to be effective, it is important to create a friendly and trusting atmosphere.
- The personal principle of education is that the teacher should recognize, respect and develop the individual characteristics of each individual student. This should be familiar with the level of education, life principles, and preferences and tastes of children.
- The principle of unity of educational influences is that society, family, and educational institutions must work in one direction, and not conflict with each other. Should the level of culture can instill in your child only that the tutor, who himself has the appropriate characteristics.
It should be noted that the complex of these principles is the content of education. They are binding and must be applied equally in the educational process. It is not necessary to allocate separate principles or disparage him.
The contents and methods of education
At the moment, certain practices have developed which is actively used by teachers in the process of working with children. Thus, the content and methods of education can be classified as follows:
- To the formation of consciousness:
- the belief of students of the correctness of a particular provision
- emotive story that helps children to acquire the skills of moral evaluation of norms of conduct
- the explanation applies in the case when you need to influence the minds of the individual child or group
- ethical conversation unobtrusively shapes the identity of the person
- the suggestion gives the actions and thoughts of the disciples a specific installation
- coaching involves a detailed explanation of the sequence of actions in a given situation
- debate-competition of opposing views on a particular issue
- report-statement of information unilaterally
- an example helps to visualize behaviors.
- Aimed at shaping public behavior:
- exercise is the repetition of certain actions with the aim of forming stable beliefs and skills
- schooling gives you the opportunity as soon as possible to instill in the pupil of certain quality through intensive classes
- pedagogical requirements demonstrate the subordination of the pupil to the teacher
- the assignment helps to develop a pupil's sense of responsibility
- the educational situation is created artificially with the purpose to explain the rules.
- Aimed at stimulating activities:
- the competition is the pupil a desire to stand out from the group and show the best results
- the promotion motivates for further success
- punishment acts a certain constraint, which causes fear of committing illegal acts.
The goals and objectives of education
The objectives and content of education is the final state and the set of characteristics that are planned to foster children through systematic training. They can be both General and individual. In addition, depending on the time period, goals can be promising, the current and medium-term. They are determined by the teachers and parents.
To achieve the objectives are allocated specific tasks. The content of education does not essentially change how detailed they will be. Most often tasks are compiled separately for each type. So, for mental education, it will be the assimilation of information, the formation of horizons and the constant expansion of spheres of interest. As regards physical education, it may be the development of endurance, promoting health, and achieving success in certain sports. With regard to the General tasks defined at the legislative level, it is worth noting the following:
- formation of ideas about their own abilities and position in society
- harmonious and comprehensive development of personality
- the mastery of basic moral values, which are common in society
- the formation of citizenship, which will allow the child to become an active member of society
- the development of initiative and interest in solving individual and collective tasks
- the formation of a wide range of communication and communication skills.
The contents of the education of the child is reflected in the program, which is based on the following main sections:
- promoting a respectful and prudent attitude towards nature in all its manifestations
- making a General picture about the cultural norms in society
- understanding, that human life belongs to the category of higher values
- understanding of the fundamentals of social organization
- formation of ideas about the way of life, which should maintain a decent member of society
- preparing to select your own way of life.
It is important to understand that these provisions are binding. It can be introduced additional paragraphs.
Early childhood education
The content of the education of preschool children includes two main points. The first thing the child needs to develop certain personal qualities. Also there is a preparation for learning at school. It should be noted that this process can take place in special educational establishments and in the home.
It is worth noting that in kindergartens the content of preschool education is strictly regulated and complies with the established standards. If to speak about home schooling, the parents can avoid a number of errors. So, in any case we should not cancel the "quiet time" in the afternoon. The child must break from the stress. It is also unacceptable to mimic the school with calls, lessons and changes. Do not prematurely engage the child in "adult" life trying to develop him as a first or second class.
Early childhood education is based on the following principles:
- the formation of personality occurs during vigorous activity
- the requirements for a child should not override respect for him
- in a strict pedagogical process should always be a place of creativity and children's initiative
- the contents and means of education must fully comply not only with the age of the child, but also his individual abilities and level of development.
Preschool is considered age from 3 to 7 years. It is a complicated and responsible period, when the child should be prepared for the strict regimen and the perception of large volumes of information.
Features of physical education
The content of physical education is a pedagogical process aimed at the development and improvement of various functions of the body, as well as the formation of different kinds of skills. It should be noted that this phenomenon originated in the earliest historical stages, and continuously improved. This trend cannot be underestimated, because it is the Foundation of full development of the personality.
During the period of school education content of physical education reduced to the following provisions:
- the formation of the motor skills
- health promotion and the provision of normal physical development, appropriate age parameters
- to develop in pupils the philosophy of a healthy lifestyle
- formation of interest in regular physical exercise, and interest in certain sports.
Characteristics of moral education
The contents of moral education consists in purposeful action which is intended to form the child a certain set of moral and aesthetic feelings, and behavior skills that are common in society. It pursues certain tasks, the main of which are:
- the formation of consciousness, the relevant standards
- the cultivation of proper feelings
- develop skills to conduct appropriate morals and ethics.
Methods of this type of education can be divided into three main groups:
- the formation of moral consciousness (achieved through stories, lectures, conversations, suggestions, explanations, examples, and so on)
- the formation of a behavioral experience (you can use exercises, simulations and instruction from the teachers)
- to stimulate further development (can be achieved by rewards and punishments, as well as the creation of conditions of competition).
In the process of moral education must be achieved the following objectives:
- understanding the need to respect moral principles in all spheres of life
- developing a sense of conscience
- encouraging further moral development and self-improvement
- durability and resistance to immoral phenomena, their public condemnation
- tolerance and compassion towards others.
The contents of a child's upbringing is a combination of types and methods of activities aimed at the formation of personality. Its purpose must be real, because it is impossible to achieve more than at the moment allow physiological and mental abilities. It is also important to understand that education is a mutual process, and therefore it must be carried out in close collaboration with the child, not by authoritarian influences. There should always be a place for self-determination. It should be noted that in the process of education is always to consider the feelings and interests of the child. There should not be compulsion. It is better if the process of education the child will be in the team.
Education is divided into several classifications. Thus, in accordance with the object, it can be economic, intellectual, civil, legal, international, Patriotic and so on. As for the content, it can take place of labour, physical and mental upbringing. If we talk about the form school, religious and family. As for the style activity of the teacher, that education can be free, democratic or authoritarian.
In the process of education should adhere to a number of principles. First and foremost, must present a social orientation to early to instill in your child an understanding of the importance of labour in public life. Always rely on good examples and emotions, and to communicate with the child as a whole person, showing him full respect. It is worth noting that all children have individual characteristics, which are definitely worth considering. It is also important to understand that the educational process in the family, society and educational institutions should have a single direction.
The goals and objectives of education are formulated individually depending on the situation. However, there is a generally accepted list, according to which aligned educational processes. So, the child should get a clear idea about the structure of society and their role in it. There must also be harmonious all-round development. Children should receive a basic understanding of morality, and to form a clear civil position. Is to develop a child's sense of interest in the solution of collective problems, and to develop communication skills.
Special attention should be paid to preschool education, especially if it is done at home. So, parents often make the mistake of trying to accustom the child to strict school regime or trying to develop with them a complicated program of primary school. It is important to give sufficient attention to the physical, mental and moral development in accordance with the characteristics of the particular age period.