The content of education: the concept, principles, goals and methods
The content of upbringing is a set of goals, activities, methods, directions and other parameters that characterize the purposeful impact on the child's personality. This takes into account the impact of external factors, as well as individual characteristics of the nature of the child.
Definition of concept
The content of upbringing is a certain system that includes a set of beliefs, personal qualities, behaviors and other traits that a child must master in the process of targeted action. The following ideas are based on the basis:
- the reality of the goals (human development in accordance with his abilities and inclinations);
- joint activities (training programs, the search for topics and techniques by teachers are carried out in close cooperation with pupils);
- self-determination (a child should be given a certain freedom of action in the search for hobbies, as well as the establishment of a life position);
- personal orientation (the child, his feelings and interests should be in the center of the educational process);
- voluntariness (working with children should be organized in such a way that they themselves express a desire to acquire certain knowledge and skills);
- collectivity (in the process of education, children should be prepared for life in society).
Basic types of education
The content of upbringing can be expressed in its classification. It can be described as follows:
- In accordance with the object:
- economic (an explanation of the basic laws of financial relations);
- civil (teaching the basic norms of life in society);
- intellectual (the laws of logical thinking);
- international (knowledge of the features of culture and life of different peoples, as well as the development of respect and tolerance for them);
- legal (main aspects of legislation);
- spiritual and moral (teaching norms of conduct and morality);
- aesthetic (education implies the instilling of love for the beautiful);
- patriotic (the development of a sense of responsibility to the homeland).
- In accordance with the content:
- labor (training in basic methods of work and reporting information on the most common professions);
- mental education (development of thinking abilities, expansion of horizons);
- physical (development of endurance and learning the basics of a healthy lifestyle).
- In accordance with the form:
- confessional (religious).
- In relation to the educator:
- democratic (the educator respects the point of view of the pupils);
- free (the actions of pupils are not limited);
- authoritarian (rigid style of teaching, clear correspondence to the program).
Content, principles of education
The formation of a child's personality occurs under the influence of teachers, parents and other actors. The content of upbringing can be expressed in its basic principles, which read as follows:
- The social orientation of upbringing implies that children should understand the importance of labor in the life of the individual and society. A child from an early age must learn to respect someone else's work, as well as perform a number of actions independently. In addition, the content of social education should be built in such a way as to develop in children intolerance to irresponsibility, idleness and other negative phenomena.
- In the process of interaction with the child, the educator should rely on positive emotions, as well as examples on the basis of which certain qualities and qualities must be formed in children. It is very important to show interest in the future of the child, and not just formal fulfillment of duties.
- The humanization of education is, first of all, in the human and sympathetic attitude of the teacher to the pupils. It is also necessary to show respect for the opinion of children, even if it differs from the generally accepted. In the learning process, the child should not be humiliated or coerced into anything. To make the educational process effective, it is important to create a friendly and trustful atmosphere.
- The personal principle of upbringing is that the teacher must consider, respect and develop the individual characteristics of each individual student. For this it is worthwhile to get acquainted with the level of upbringing, life principles, as well as the preferences and tastes of children.
- The principle of unity of educational influences is that society, the family, and also educational institutions should work in one direction, and not contradict each other. At the same time, the proper level of culture can only be instilled in the child by the educator who himself has the appropriate characteristics.
It is worth noting that the set of these principles is the content of education. They are obligatory for execution and should be applied equally in the educational process. It is not necessary to single out or neglect individual principles.
Content and methods of education
At the moment, there is a certain practice that is actively used by educators in the process of working with children. So, the content and methods of upbringing can be classified as follows:
- Focused on the formation of consciousness:
- persuading pupils of the correctness of this or that provision;
- an emotionally colored story that helps children acquire the skills of moral assessment of norms of behavior;
- clarification is applied when it is necessary to influence the consciousness of an individual child or group;
- ethical conversation unobtrusively forms a person's personality;
- suggestion gives the pupils' actions and thoughts a certain attitude;
- instruction implies a detailed explanation of the algorithm of actions in a given situation;
- dispute-competition of opposing opinions on a specific issue;
- report-presentation of information unilaterally;
- the example helps to more clearly present the norms of behavior.
- Directed on the formation of public behavior:
- exercise is the repeated repetition of certain actions in order to form stable beliefs and skills;
- accustoming makes it possible in the shortest possible time to instill in the pupil those or other qualities through intensive studies;
- pedagogical requirements demonstrate the subordination of the student to the teacher;
- the assignment helps the pupil develop a sense of responsibility;
- educational situations are created artificially in order to visually explain these or other rules.
- Directed to stimulate activities:
- competition causes the pupil to stand out from the group and show the best results;
- encouragement motivates to further success;
- punishment acts as a definite limiter, which causes fear of committing wrongful acts.
Goals and objectives of education
The goals and content of education are the final state and set of characteristics that are planned to be instilled into the child through systematic studies. They can be either general or individual. In addition, depending on the time period, the objectives can be perspective, current and medium-term. They are determined by teachers, as well as by parents.
To achieve the goals, certain tasks are singled out. The content of upbringing does not fundamentally change from how detailed they will be. Most often, tasks are compiled separately for each species. So, for mental education it will be the assimilation of information, the formation of an outlook and the constant expansion of the sphere of interests. As for physical education, it can be the development of endurance, the strengthening of health, as well as achieving success in a certain sports field. As for the general tasks defined at the legislative level, it is worth noting the following:
- formation of ideas about their own abilities and position in society;
- harmonious and all-round development of personality;
- mastering the basic moral values that are generally accepted in society;
- the formation of a civic position that will allow the child to become an active member of society in the future;
- development of initiative and interest in solving labor and collective problems;
- formation of a wide range of communication and communication skills.
The content of the child's upbringing process is reflected in the program, which is compiled on the basis of such main sections:
- the formation of a respectful and frugal attitude to nature in all its manifestations;
- drawing up a general picture of ideas about the cultural norms that exist in society;
- the formation of an understanding that human life belongs to the category of the highest values;
- understanding of the foundations of social order;
- the formation of ideas about the way of life that a worthy member of society must lead;
- preparation for choosing your own life path.
It is important to understand that these provisions are binding. In this case, additional items can be entered.
The content of the education of preschoolers includes two main points. First of all, the child must develop certain personal qualities. Also there is a preparation for training at school. It should be noted that this process can take place both in special educational institutions and at home.
It is worth noting that in kindergartens the maintenance of preschool education is strictly regulated and meets the established standards. If we talk about home schooling, then parents can make a number of mistakes. So, in no case should not cancel the "quiet hour" in the afternoon. The child must certainly rest from the stresses. It is also unacceptable to imitate the school regime with calls, lessons and changes. Do not prematurely involve the baby in the "adult" life, trying to learn from him a program of the first or second class.
Preschool education is based on the following principles:
- the formation of personality occurs in the process of active activity;
- the requirements for the child should not outweigh respect for it;
- in the strict pedagogical process there should always be a place for creativity and a children's initiative;
- content, means of education must fully correspond not only to the age of the child, but also to his individual abilities and level of development.
Pre-school age is from 3 to 7 years. This is a rather complex and responsible period when a child must be prepared for a strict regime and the perception of a significant amount of information.
Features of physical education
The content of physical education is a pedagogical process that is aimed at the development and improvement of various functions of the body, as well as the formation of various kinds of skills. It should be noted that this phenomenon originated at the earliest historical stages, and was constantly being improved. This direction can not be underestimated, because it is the basis for a full-fledged development of the individual.
During the period of school education, the content of physical education is reduced to the following provisions:
- formation of motor skills and abilities;
- strengthening of health, as well as ensuring normal physical development, corresponding to age parameters;
- the development of philosophy of a healthy lifestyle among pupils;
- formation of interest in regular physical activities, as well as interest in certain sports.
Features of moral education
The content of moral education consists in a purposeful influence that is designed to form in the child a certain set of moral and aesthetic feelings, as well as behavioral skills that are generally accepted in society. It pursues certain tasks, the main of which are:
- the formation of consciousness corresponding to moral norms;
- the education of the corresponding feelings;
- the development of behavioral skills consistent with the notions of morality and morality.
Methods of this type of upbringing can be divided into three main groups:
- the formation of moral consciousness (achieved through stories, lectures, talks, suggestions, explanations, examples, etc.);
- formation of behavioral experience (exercises, situations modeling, as well as teaching by teachers can be used);
- stimulation of further development (can be achieved through rewards and punishments, as well as creating conditions for competition).
In the process of moral education the following goals must be achieved:
- understanding of the need to observe moral principles in all spheres of life;
- developing a sense of conscience;
- stimulation of further moral development and self-improvement;
- persistence and resistance to immoral phenomena, their public condemnation;
- tolerance and charity towards others.
The content of the upbringing of the child is a combination of types and methods of activity that are aimed at the formation of the personality. His goals should be real, because you can not achieve more than at the moment allows physiological and mental abilities. It is also important to understand that education is a mutual process, and therefore it must be done in close interaction with the child, and not through authoritarian influence. There must always be a place for self-determination. It should be noted that in the process of education, it is always worth taking into account the feelings and interests of the child. There should not be room for coercion. It is better if in the process of education the child will be in the team.
Education is divided into several classification characteristics. So, in accordance with the object, it can be economic, intellectual, civil, legal, international, patriotic and so on. As far as content is concerned, there can be labor, physical and mental upbringing. If we talk about form - school, religious and family. As for the style of the teacher's activity, education can be free, democratic or authoritarian.
In the process of education is to adhere to a number of principles. First of all there should be a social orientation, so that from an early age to instill in the child an understanding of the importance of labor in public life. Always it is necessary to lean on positive examples and emotions, and also to communicate with the child, as with a full-fledged person, showing to him full respect. It should be noted that all children have individual characteristics, which are certainly worth considering. It is also important to understand that the educational process in the family, society and educational institutions should have a single direction.
Goals and objectives of education are formulated individually, depending on the situation. Nevertheless, there is a generally accepted list, according to which educational processes are built. So, the child should get a clear idea of the structure of society and its role in it. A harmonious all-round development must also be ensured. Children should receive basic ideas about morality and morality, and also form a clear civic position. It is worth developing a sense of commitment in the collective tasks, as well as develop communication skills.
Particular attention should be paid to preschool education, especially if it is carried out at home. So, parents often make the mistake of trying to accustom a child to a strict school regime or trying to master a complex program of primary classes with them. It is important to give sufficient attention to physical, mental and moral development in accordance with the peculiarities of a particular age period.