Sugar is elevated in pregnancy — as this is a serious problem
Pregnancy is an amazing event that completely changes the life of every woman. Adjusting to the beat of a small heart, the mother tries to do everything to make the child comfortable through all nine months. Sorry, for the long forty weeks the expectant mother has to experience not only the joy of soon seeing the baby, but many unpleasant feelings that accompany pregnancy. Some of the inevitable companions of pregnancy do not bear any risk to the fetus, others require constant medical supervision. One of the serious complications in the waiting period, the child is gestational diabetes – a condition in which increased glucose levels in the peripheral blood.
Talking about increased blood sugar during pregnancy?
At the first appearance in female consultation expectant mother receives from the doctor, allowing to assess the overall condition of a pregnant woman. One of the most significant indicators in this huge list is to determine the content of glucose in the blood. If you find that sugar is elevated during pregnancy, the woman will be asked to undergo additional screening and treatment if necessary.
The increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood is not as harmless as it may seem at first glance. The change in blood sugar triggers a complex pathological mechanisms, leading to considerable deterioration of a pregnant woman. The processes occurring in the body of the expectant mother inevitably will have an impact on the development of the fetus, increasing the risk of having a child with signs of diabetic fetopathy.
How do you know that sugar is elevated during pregnancy?
A blood test for the detection of glucose the woman does twice: at the first appearance in female consultation and in the period of 22-24 weeks. A future mom should not keep to a diet or change eating habits for three days prior to the scheduled examination. Blood is usually taken from a vein in the morning on an empty stomach. Exceeding the permissible values in most cases tells about the development of gestational diabetes.
Why is the glucose level?
Under normal conditions the sugar content is regulated by the hormone insulin, that is continually produced by the pancreas. Under its influence glucose is that came along with the food gradually passes into the cells of the body, performing its function. The sugar level in the blood is lowered. What happens during pregnancy and why this arrangement fails?
Hormones, allowing you to carry the baby, are antagonists of insulin. Elevated blood sugar in pregnancy is linked to the fact that pancreas is just not doing its work in such conditions. Pregnancy hormones stimulate the release of glucose in the blood, and insulin is able to bind excess sugar, lacking. The result is the so-called gestational diabetes, are dangerous with their unpredictable consequences.
It would seem that in this situation any woman in an interesting position should suffer from excess of glucose in the body. However, as sugar is elevated during pregnancy not every expectant mother. What increases the risk of developing the disease?
• heredity (diabetes in close relatives)
• the development of a similar situation in a previous pregnancy
• polycystic ovary syndrome
• over 25 years of age.
Symptoms of gestational diabetes
In many cases, a pregnant woman is unaware that her glucose levels in the blood. Her health does not change, the baby is actively moving and makes itself felt the tremors. The danger of gestational diabetes is that the amount of sugar in the blood will gradually increase, resulting in serious complications.
With the increase in pregnancy glucose will rise and insulin levels inevitably decline. Manifestation of diabetes is characterized by the following symptoms:
• a constant feeling of thirst
• increased appetite
• frequent urination
• blurred vision.
For accurate diagnosis of mere complaints about the deterioration of health is not enough. Hunger and frequent urination are typical for many pregnant women with perfectly normal blood sugar levels. The expectant mother will have to undergo a special examination, to confirm or refute gestational diabetes.
To find out whether sugar is elevated during pregnancy, the woman is invited to donate blood for determination of glucose levels. The analysis seems to on an empty stomach.
• from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol/l – the norm
• from 5.5 to 7 mmol/l – impaired glucose
• more than 7.1 mmol/l – diabetes mellitus.
When the level of glucose 7.1 mmol/l expectant mother is sent for consultation to the endocrinologist to confirm the diagnosis and develop a treatment strategy.
Elevated sugar in urine in pregnancy also indicates the development of gestational diabetes. Most often, the glucose is detected in the later stages, when the disease has gone too far. Sugar in the urine suggests that the kidney can no longer do their function, and therefore increases the risk of complications of all organs and systems of the female body.
How dangerous is gestational diabetes?
Many pregnant women do not seek help from the experts, hoping that after birth, glucose levels fall by itself. They do not realize what really is dangerous elevated sugar during pregnancy. Consequences of gestational diabetes can be very sad. In women with a high sugar content in the blood increases the risk of secondary preeclampsia (a condition characterized by swelling and high blood pressure in late pregnancy). In addition, increases the likelihood of getting complications of the kidneys and urinary system. Do not forget that childbirth in women with diabetes frequently occur prematurely.
How does diabetes affect the fetus?
Elevated sugar levels in the blood of the mother affects the state of the baby. The complex of symptoms developing during this pregnancy called diabetic fetopathy. In this pathology the child is born very large, more than 4.5 kg. But the big weight does not mean that the baby will be healthy. In contrast, for diabetic fetopathy is characterized by lag in physical development. In connection with the lack of surfactant (a substance that helps the lungs to open up at birth) in a newborn there are various respiratory disorders. Very often develop pathological jaundice, and a variety of neurological disorders.
Gestatsionnogo treatment of diabetes
Most moms are frightened to discover elevated sugar during pregnancy. What if there was such trouble? First of all, the woman should seek the advice of a specialist. The endocrinologist will assess the condition of the expectant mother and depending on the severity of the disease will prescribe the necessary treatment.
In most cases, the tactics of management of pregnant women with diabetes is to change in diet. Normalization of insulin levels in the blood eliminates the need for heavy artillery in the form of hormonal drugs. Diet for high sugar in pregnancy includes the following principles:
• Daily diet is split between protein, fats and carbohydrates in the ratio of 20-25%, 35-40% and 35%, respectively.
• During the whole pregnancy period is a gradual decrease in caloric intake 25-30 kcal per 1 kg of body weight.
• Daily use of any excluded easily digestible carbohydrates (especially sweets).
In the case when using the diet fails to normalize the blood sugar level, pregnant women are appointed insulin therapy. Dose selection provides an endocrinologist. He also leads the monitoring of the future mother during the whole period of gestation and if necessary change the dose of the assigned drug.
Emergency care in diabetes
During pregnancy all women with diabetes are advised to purchase a personal blood glucose meter. This drug allows at any time to control the sugar level in the peripheral blood and to take the necessary measures if it is changed. Gestational diabetes is dangerous not only an increase in the concentration of glucose, but its sharp decline. This state is threatened by the sudden weakness, loss of consciousness and even coma.
How to increase blood sugar during pregnancy that is guaranteed to avoid the unpleasant consequences of diabetes? She should remember that her dizziness and weakness are dangerous symptoms that require immediate help. When the first signs of fall of glucose expectant mother is recommended to urgently eat something sweet. It can be candy stashed in my purse for such an occasion, or piece of chocolate. In order to avoid such a situation, a pregnant woman should eat well, do not forget to include in your diet are not only tasty, but also useful products.
Gestational diabetes in most cases takes place independently after the baby is born. Do not relax – in women undergoing this pathology during pregnancy significantly increases the risk of true diabetes. For prevention of this serious disease, it is recommended to reconsider your diet, increase physical activity and regularly monitor the level of glucose in the blood. Compliance with these rules will help a woman time to notice any deviations in health status and take necessary measures to eliminate the unpleasant symptoms.