Increased ESR in a child
A detailed picture of the child's health can be obtained from the analysis of blood. Its important element is the index of ESR (sedimentation rate of erythrocyte cells). This is a nonspecific parameter, which has a high sensitivity for determining infectious and oncological pathologies. From the materials in this article, you will learn why some children have ESR above the norm, which means what steps parents should take.
ESR is one of the main parameters of the blood test. Under red blood cells are meant red corpuscles that, under the influence of anticoagulants, settle for a certain amount of time to the bottom of a medical test tube.
A similar process occurs in the human body. Over time, red blood cells undergo agglomeration and gradually settle on the walls of the vessels. The indicator of ESR is not assessed separately, that is, separately from others. It is very sensitive. The change in this indicator signals the development of a certain pathology in the body before the emergence of a pronounced clinical picture.
Methods for determining the value of ESR
Today, in medical practice, there are two options for determining the size of erythrocyte cell sedimentation: the method of Panchenkov and Westergren.
The first involves placing a biological fluid on the glass, which is installed vertically. The second is considered more informative, as it optimally recreates the conditions of a similar process in the human body. Normally, the results of both analyzes should be identical.
The method of Westergren differs most sensitively, because for its use only venous blood is used. When the results of the analysis show an increased ESR in a child, it is not necessary to re-take it.
Normative indicators in children
After the doctor took the blood from the child, he should place it in a special test tube. In it, under the influence of gravitational forces, the red blood cells begin to gradually settle. The task of the laboratory assistant is to measure the speed with which this process occurs.
The normative parameters of ESR vary in children and adults, and also differ depending on the sex of the child. However, there are certain boundaries that allow us to identify the presence of a pathological process in the body.
For the norm is considered to be such indicators:
- Infants: 2 to 4 mm / h.
- Children under 6 years: from 5 to 11 mm / h.
- Teens up to 14 years: from 5 to 13 mm / h.
- Young people over 14 years: from 1 to 10 mm / h.
- Girls after 14 years: from 2 to 15 mm / h.
Increased ESR in a child does not always indicate the presence of inflammation in the body. To make an accurate diagnosis, a more detailed examination and determination of other parameters in the blood should be done.
Increased ESR in the child
Often parents will learn about the violation during a routine examination with a pediatrician. If the expert does not see the reasons that could lead to the problem, a re-delivery of the tests by another method is assigned.
High ESR almost always pushes the idea of inflammation in the body. However, this opinion should necessarily be backed up by the results of the additional survey. Often a high level of lymphocytes signals a viral infection, and an increase in neutrophils - about a bacterial infection. Without taking into account the accompanying test data, it is not possible to detect the disease in the child.
The size of the sagging of red cells can go beyond the norm in young children if they lack vitamins or when the analysis is underway was an active process of dentition. In older patients, the body responds by raising this blood parameter to stress or strong experiences.
What factors affect the performance of ESR in children?
The main factor that increases this indicator is the presence of an inflammatory reaction in the body. However, doctors also identify other causes that contribute to a decrease / increase in the process of settling red corpuscles.
- Change in pH and viscosity of blood.
- Reducing the number of red blood cells.
- The presence of worms.
- Deficiency of vitamins in the body.
- Unbalanced nutrition.
It is important to note that the indicators of erythrocyte sedimentation refer to those parameters that very slowly come back to normal. After the acute respiratory viral infection, the child may experience a high ESR for some time. Approximately 1.5 months later, these parameters are normalized.
The main causes of increased ESR
As it was mentioned earlier in the article, most often the reasons for changing this blood indicator are hidden in the presence of inflammation in the body. In addition, allergic reactions, poisoning, untreated foci of infection can provoke such phenomena.
Among the main diseases reported by the increase in ESR in children are the following:
- Autoimmune processes (lupus erythematosus, scleroderma).
- Diseases of the blood (anemia, leukemia).
- Endocrine pathologies (diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism).
In infants, the analysis of ESR is increased usually with teething or due to the high fat content of breast milk. Sometimes this state is quite natural, that is, it is an individual body norm. In such cases, pediatricians recommend a regular examination.
It also happens that all indicators are normal except for the size of erythrocyte sedimentation. False positive acceleration can be due to obesity of the child, taking some multivitamin complexes or vaccinating against hepatitis.
Monocytes and ESR elevated in a child
Monocytes are immature blood cells. Their level can also be determined using a general analysis. When you need detailed information about the functioning of the child's body, check the leukocyte formula. Elevated and decreased levels of these blood cells indicate abnormalities. The increase in parameters is called monocytosis. Normally, the number of immature cells should not exceed 11% of the number of leukocytes.
A decrease in the level of monocytes indicates violations of the immune system. This is usually found in anemia, leukemia and radiation sickness.
An increase in monocytes is observed in tuberculosis, malaria and lymphatic system damage. Thus, an increase in the number of immature cells, as well as increased ESR in a child should alert the parents and the pediatrician.
What treatment is required?
When the index of sedimentation rate of red cells is slightly higher than normal, the child's condition is stable, there is no reason to worry. For your own comfort, after a short period of time, you can re-take tests and make sure that your baby is safe.
If the ESR parameters exceed the 15 mm / h mark, almost always this means the presence of an infectious focus in the body. When this figure reaches about 30-40 mm / h, this is a clear sign of a serious illness, the fight against which may take several months.
Increased ESR in a child always means a disruption in the functioning of the body. The pediatrician first of all needs to determine the root cause, which provoked such changes. This may require a more serious examination. After the doctor should prescribe the treatment of a particular disease. Usually it means taking antibiotics and antiviral drugs.
Reduced ESR in a child
Reduction of erythrocyte sedimentation rates usually indicates a disturbed circulation, poor coagulation or liquefaction of blood. The number of red bodies increases, but they interact with each other inefficiently.
This phenomenon is observed in children who have recently suffered a poisoning or dehydration, have problems with the chair. In some cases, low rates signal viral hepatitis.
Only a pediatrician can determine the true cause of this pathology and recommend appropriate therapy.
Very often, parents seek advice from a pediatrician when the child has an ESR higher than normal. What this means, what are the causes of such violations in the work of the body, can only tell a specialist on the basis of a full diagnostic examination of a small patient. The rate of erythrocyte sedimentation is a serious indicator, therefore its values are not recommended to be neglected. In the event of a deviation from the norm, long-term treatment may be required. The sooner the course of therapy begins, the higher the chances of a quick recovery.