Pigmented spots in children: causes, treatment
Detection of pigment spots on the skin of a child alarms not only the parents of the baby, but also the doctors. Are such tumors dangerous, should they be removed? We will answer these questions, and also tell you why there are pigment spots in children.
What are age spots?
Human skin is a complex protective mechanism that protects the body from excessive loss of moisture, unfavorable external factors, the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms. Melanin plays an important role in the described processes. But the excess of this substance leads to its point accumulation. This concentration of matter is called skin pigmentation. The factors that contribute to the development of such a state, we will discuss below.
Reasons for education
Did the child notice pigmentation spots? The reasons for their appearance may be different. In the medical literature, there are two large groups of factors that can provoke the formation of pigmentation on the skin:
Thus, genetic predisposition belongs to the first category. If the next of kin are susceptible to the formation of pigmented spots, then the likelihood of their occurrence in the child.
Also, congenital factors include cutaneous neoplasms that appear as a result of complications arising during the course of labor.
Did the child develop pigmentation spots? The causes of this condition can be the disease of internal organs or the negative impact of external factors. In particular, the appearance of skin lesions can provoke the following factors:
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- a change in the hormonal background;
- metabolic disease;
- a sharp change in climate and diet;
- taking certain medicines.
In children, including newborns, the following types of pigment spots occur:
In some cases, the removal of pigmented spots is required, in others there is no such need. Therefore, it is important to conduct a medical examination of the baby in time to determine the type and nature of the cutaneous neoplasm.
We will tell you more about each species.
"Coffee" pigment spots
This kind of skin pigmentation is common in newborns. The color of the neoplasm can be from light beige to dark brown. There are such pigmentation spots in children on any part of the body, but are more often found on the face, arms, legs and back.
"Coffee" neoplasms can manifest themselves during the first two weeks of the baby's life, and then disappear without a trace after a few months. There is no need to treat such spots - they do not cause any disturbances in the healthy functioning of the body crumbs.
Hemangioma is a pink or red spot on the skin. Its difference from other types of pigmented spots lies in the fact that it is not a conglomeration of melanin, but a benign tumor that is formed as a result of damage to the blood vessels. According to medical statistics, such pigmentation spots in children of the first six months are often found. In addition, it is noted that among girls such neoplasms are more common.
The reasons for the development of such a tumor are intrauterine disorders of the formation of the fetal circulatory system, as well as complications during childbirth. In 70% of cases, the neoplasm itself disappears by 7 years. Of the remaining 30% - in 10% of children there is an involution of hemangioma in adolescence. This is due to a change in the hormonal background.
This kind of pigmented spots can form not only on the skin, but also on internal organs, disrupting their work. Therefore, hemangioma can be dangerous for the health and life of the child. If there are pink or red pigment spots on the hand of the child, face, occipital region, abdomen, then there is a need for a full medical examination of a small patient and further specialized monitoring of neoplasms.
Whether it is necessary to treat a hemangioma?
Such a skin defect in children, like hemangioma, is recommended to be removed in the following cases:
- rapid growth of the tumor;
- the color of the pigmentation has changed;
- the spots bleed.
Treatment of hemangioma can be conservative and surgical. The latter is administered to babies older than three months if there are medical indications. The removal of pigmented spots is possible and with the help of such conservative methods as:
- injections of quinine;
- radiation therapy;
Telangiectasia or stork bite
One in three newborns are born with pink spots on the back of the head, temples, forehead or cheeks. In the people such pigmentation is called "stork bite", in medicine it is denoted by the complex term "telangiectasia".
The cause of the appearance of these spots is the intrauterine pressure of the pelvic bones of the mother on the baby. This happens at the end of the third trimester, when the fetus occupies the occipital position in the uterus head down. In addition, during the passage through the birth canal also possible traumatization of the skin, which leads to the formation of such pigmentation in the newborn.
Teleangiectasias can gradually become paler, but in some cases remain for life. Health hazards such pigmentation spots in children do not carry and treatment can not be cured.
Is the nevus dangerous?
The nevus is nothing but a mole. But, as is known, such spots can under certain conditions transform into a malignant tumor. Therefore, such skin defects require medical supervision. If you change the color, the size of the spot, the formation of nodules on it, the presence of a large number of moles - you should as soon as possible to conduct a survey of neoplasms for their good quality.
The cause of the appearance of nevi can be a genetic predisposition or endocrine diseases. Depending on the reason for the formation and nature of the pigmentation, the doctor may recommend conservative or surgical treatment.
This kind of pigmentation is a kind of nevus. Externally is a large pigmentation spot in a child, similar to hematoma, which is most often found on the buttocks, lower back or leg. In 90% of cases it occurs in children of the Mongoloid race. In our country, most often with this skin defect babies are born from mixed marriages. The causes of the appearance of the "Mongoloid spot" are genetic features of melanin production in representatives of individual nationalities: Chinese, Japanese, Africans, Hindus, Pakistanis and some others.
Such a pigmented spot does not pose any danger to the health of the baby and in most cases disappears or significantly brightens itself by 5 years.
Freckles, or "kisses of the sun," appear in children older than a year with a genetic predisposition. They are darker than the primary color of the skin. In addition, in the summer season, under the influence of sunlight, the specks become brighter, but in the winter, on the contrary, turn pale. Orange-brown "konopushki" cover the cheeks, forehead, chin. There are freckles and on the shoulders, back, legs.
Such pigmented skin was formerly considered a characteristic feature of people of the lower class. To date, freckles are a reflection of the individuality of their owner. In addition, it is noted that such specks gradually pale, beginning at the age of 25.
Nevertheless, quite often the owners of "sunspots" refer to specialists to remove such pigmentation. Methods for eliminating freckles vary widely:
- cosmetic whitening products and folk recipes;
- chemical peeling;
- laser therapy;
- removal by light waves.
But before deciding on the use of the above methods, it should be noted that the removal of pigmented spots always leads to traumatization of the skin, often there are irreversible complications.
Thus, any neoplasms on the skin of the child require examination and observation. If in some cases the pigmentation spots in children are absolutely harmless, in others they are dangerous for the baby. Therefore, timely detection of the problem and the provision of the necessary medical care can preserve the health of the crumbs.