Treatment of calciviroza: scheme
Many people, trying to get a pet, forget about precautions. Unfortunately, cats and dogs can be carriers of diseases that are dangerous for other pets and for humans. Especially often epidemics occur in places of animal cluster, for example, in unscrupulous breeders. Many people, buying a cute kitten, do not even assume that they will have to learn how this or that disease and treatment passes. Calcivirosis is one of them. This infectious disease with a hurricane form of spread, leading in most cases to death.
Causes and signs of calciticosis
The most common way of infection is by airborne droplets from a sick animal. Therefore, all animals selected from the street must be quarantined, since there is a threat of an epidemic. The causative agent of the disease is a virus. It does not have a cladding, just one RNA chain. The main difficulty is that this virus has a number of subspecies, which can cause a different degree of disease. Resistant to most disinfectants. In the external environment, it remains viable for up to seven days.
The main signs of the disease include lesions of the upper pulmonary tract. There are discharge from the nose and eyes. In the mouth, you can observe small sores. The temperature rises sharply. The detailed symptom complex will be considered below.
For the spread of any disease, certain conditions must develop. So, calciturosis in cats (symptoms and treatment below) appears in places of large concentrations of animals, in rooms with poor ventilation. Also do not forget about the regular vaccination of pets. Another risk factor is low cat immunity. Often the carrier of calciviroza suffers from a latent form of the disease, while it is a source of infection for other animals.
Ways of infection
The easiest way to spread the virus is through sneezing. A sick animal secretes phlegm into the external environment. Therefore, with a large accumulation of animals, and in rooms with poor ventilation, discharges easily and quickly spread. Thus, the epidemic of calciticosis begins. The incubation period can take up to a week. Animal, not yet showing obvious symptoms, becomes a source of virus spread. The disease lasts three weeks. The outcome of the case depends on many factors.
The virus enters the cat through the nose, eyes, mouth. In addition to direct contact with a sick individual, the animal can become ill due to contact with an infected environment. Infectious excrement, water, dishes, food, human hands. It has been scientifically proven that the virus can persist for up to a week in the external environment. The main difficulty is the resistance to most disinfectors.
Influence of the virus on all body systems
Before starting treatment, calcivirose should be perceived as a serious disruption of the functioning of the whole organism. And the weaker the immunity, the stronger the manifestations of the disease. First of all, the respiratory system is affected. Appears as a light rhinitis, and pneumonia. Especially dangerous symptom is sores on the nose. The next stage affects the eyes. It is manifested by conjunctivitis, lacrimation, ulcers on the cornea. Then joints are affected, arthritis appears. Lastly, the gastrointestinal tract is affected. Ulcers in the mouth appear. Probably bowel disease, but no symptoms. It can be found only at the autopsy.
How does the disease manifest itself?
The course of the disease and the prognosis of treatment depend on a number of factors. For example, on the age of the animal, the state of its immunity, etc. The kittens are at risk, as for them calciviroz is dangerous. For people, it does not pose a threat. Although to date, you can meet a large number of references to the alleged infection from a cat. But clinically this is not confirmed.
The symptomatology of the disease is best expressed in kittens. Cats of adults have strong immunity, and therefore the disease is often accompanied by a latent form. An important sign is a sharp rise in temperature, which does not go away for several days. There is a fever. Already at this stage it is better to send a sick animal to quarantine. Do I need to start treatment immediately? Calciviroz at the initial stage is often confused with bronchitis. Overall, loss of appetite, lethargy and weakness are noted. Dangerous symptom: the appearance of sores. From the eyes and nose, there are discharges with an extremely unpleasant odor. Single vomiting and diarrhea may occur.
After calciticosis complications are rare. Against the background of the first disease, severe pneumonia can occur, leading to a fatal outcome. Secondary infections may appear, so antibiotic therapy is important. As a rule, arthritis and ulcers pass without consequences.
Before starting treatment: calciviroza and diagnosis
When diagnosing any disease, it is important to be able to distinguish it from similar conditions. So, calciviroz has a similar picture with chlamydia, viral rhinotracheitis and bordetleosis. To do this, the veterinarian conducts a careful collection of anamnesis. So, for example, ulcers in the tongue appear only with calciviroza. A common blood test is used as a diagnostic tool. The problem is that it is useless and only reflects the consequences of the underlying disease. Before starting treatment, calciticosis is confirmed by a serological test on paired sera. Thanks to him, it is possible to determine the increase in the titer of neutralizing antibodies against the virus. To diagnose pneumonia, X-ray of the lungs is shown.
Calcitovirus in cats: symptoms and treatment according to several schemes
After a precise diagnosis, the veterinarian develops a treatment regimen. To date, there are about forty subspecies of this problem, so you can not immediately tell which medications will be most effective. There are different diseases of cats, calciviroz in this respect is cunning.
Except for severe cases, treatment is performed on an outpatient basis. Remember that for a successful outcome, it is required to apply a set of measures. For pneumonia and for diseased kittens efforts should be trebled. The problem is that there is no cure for the virus. Therefore, the treatment scheme for calciticosis is aimed at eliminating symptoms and supporting the body.
Key points of treatment
It is important not to allow the emergence of a secondary infection caused by bacteria, for this purpose a broad-spectrum antibiotic is prescribed. For example, Flemoxin. Apply it for ten days, at a dosage of 12.5-22 mg / kg. They put a dropper twice a day. It is important to artificially stimulate immunity. To do this, apply special preparations for animals. For example, "Fosprenil." Clinical practice notes the high effectiveness of such a drug as "Cycloferon".
Not only in the elimination of symptoms is treatment, calciticosis is dangerous dehydration of the body. To prevent this condition, Ringer's solution or sodium chloride is prescribed. With complete refusal of food put droppers with glucose. Vitamin complexes, such as "Gamavit", also do not interfere.
Important: do not give the cat any chance to lower the temperature of "Paracetamol"! He is very dangerous! It is better to use "Ketofen" for this.
When calciturosis is found in cats, the symptoms and treatment may be different. Therefore, several treatment regimens are used in veterinary medicine. Let's consider each of them below.
In the scheme number 1, the main drug is Roncoleukin. It is administered subcutaneously in 5 dice. The drug should be diluted in equal proportion with saline solution. "Cycloferon" is administered every other day through half a tablet. "Ceftriaxone" is applied to 1 ml. Before injection, dilute it in equal proportion with lidocaine and saline solution. It is administered intramuscularly for ten days. Ulcers in the mouth are treated with "Metrogil-denta" gel. As a vitamin supplement injected subcutaneously, "Dufalight" twice a day.
Unfortunately, diseases of cats (calciviroz in particular) are difficult to predict the outcome. Do not forget to treat the eyes and spout with antiseptic solutions. The usual tetracycline ointment will do. The oral cavity also requires regular care. As a means for sanitation, Miramistin is ideally suited.
Since there is no antiviral drug for calciviroza, all treatment is aimed at preventing the occurrence of secondary problems. Therefore, once a day, intramuscularly put the antibiotic "Baytril". Dosage is calculated according to the instructions. The course lasts ten days. "Tsikloferon" will help immunity, prescribe it for 0.5 ml for five days. The mouth is treated with Lugol. "Aminovit" is used to strengthen the body and nutrition with vitamins.
In general, the third scheme is composed on the same principle as the two previous ones. As a vitamin supplement feed "Gamavit" in the dosage according to the instructions. To prevent the emergence of bacterial diseases, prescribe "Tylosin" one tablet twice a day. If the sores are on the skin, then they can be lubricated with Acyclovir. For the sanitation of the oral cavity, Miramistin is used, unlike its colleague Chlorohexedin, it does not have a bitter taste. "Roncoleukin" is diluted with saline and injected subcutaneously. The modern drug "Maxidin" is designed only for cats and is aimed at the destruction of hostile bacteria. It is administered subcutaneously, diluting with Novokain in equal proportions. Another immunomodulator, designed specifically for animals, "Fosprenil" is used for at least four days. When the eye is rotting, "Iris" is used.
In order not to start treatment, calcivirose is better to warn. The most important thing: Avoid a large cluster of animals! Never buy kittens from unscrupulous breeders, who keep twenty cats in one room. With forced group maintenance of cats, always observe hygiene measures. Wash all household items: bowls, deck chairs, trays, etc. Use special disinfectants: sodium hypochlorite 250 ml per 8 liters of water. A female with chronic respiratory tract infections often develop spontaneous abortions. Therefore, it is excluded from breeding. It will not be superfluous to drop the females into quarantine before delivery. Before mating it is necessary to vaccinate animals.
For the same reason, kittens are not kept in the same room with other cats. Since they do not yet have their immunity, they are at risk. In the main company they are released only after vaccination.
Be sure to put a new animal in quarantine. In isolation, the cat is up to two weeks. If during this time there are no alarming symptoms, it is connected to other pets.
Try not to let immunity weaken. To do this, you need to feed the animals well, trying to make a diet rich in vitamins and minerals. Good feeds are perfectly balanced in this regard. If the owner is a supporter of natural food, then choose raw meat, a small amount of raw vegetables and quail eggs. Do not forget to regularly show animals to the doctor, especially if there are unclear symptoms. Do not neglect vaccination, as this is the only way to prevent the outbreak of calciticosis.