Gymnastics for children 4 months: exercises, their description and photo
Today we will talk about how important is massage and gymnastics for a child (4 months). Komarovsky EO - a recognized pediatrician in the country, the author of his own television project, whose videos are very popular with parents, believes that it is possible to create suitable conditions for such procedures at home and to master the necessary skills by any adult.
What is their use?
With regular sessions, the heart and blood vessels are strengthened, the respiratory and circulatory systems begin to function better, motor skills develop and natural regulation of the processes of inhibition and stimulation of the brain occurs.
Dr. Komarovsky recommends taking up breastfed babies from two months. But in this article we will talk about children 3-4-5 months of age. Why? The child becomes more active from the age of 3 months. The amount of waking time increases, and for gymnastics classes you can choose convenient intervals when the baby is full, calm and in a good mood. There is even finger surgery for children 4 months!
Starting from 3 months already confidently holding the baby's head should often be laid out on the abdomen to strengthen the cervical, dorsal and other muscles. At 4 months the child learns the palm rest and keeps on the extended arms. For the development of muscles and ligaments of the hands it is very useful to teach him to clap his hands, and also to hit the handle on level objects.
Approximately at the same age, the first words, smiles appear and the movements of the legs and pens are activated. From the same age - about 4 months - the baby begins to be actively interested in toys, he grabs everything and tries to keep his hands, thanks to which the joints and muscles are strengthened. The parents' business is to develop such interest and ensure the selection of useful and correct rattles.
From 3-4 months of age, the muscles normalize the muscle tone of the legs and pens (hypertension phenomena come to naught). Now you can practice passive types of exercises to strengthen flexor muscles. Gymnastics children 3-4 months begins with the most uncomplicated of them. Passive exercises are most often carried out in the form of shaking (vibration), the procedures need to be supplemented with massage techniques (rubbing).
With what to begin?
What is massage and gymnastics for a child 4 months? Starting with stroking, gently massage the surface of the baby's body with the pads of the fingers, which are bent at the same time. The massage also ends with stroking, so that the nervous system calms down and the muscles relax. With time, the effects of massage become more intense. In addition, from this age it is proposed to master the first gymnastic projectiles. Most often such is a large and bright inflatable ball.
Gymnastics for children 4 months is supplemented by water procedures in the form of baths at room temperature. The first swimming skills can be instilled in a child at that age. The duration of training gradually increases from 15 to 20-25 minutes. It is clear that everything said applies to cases where the child is healthy and reacts positively to gymnastic exercises. If this is not the case, consult a pediatrician.
Children's massage: basic techniques
Let's begin with the massage of the feet. The kid, lying on his back, massages the legs with stroking and rubbing in a circle. Move from the heels to the hips and do 3-4 (no more) movements in one approach. Stroking is performed before grinding and after them, completing the exercises.
How correctly to do ring trimming? Carefully grasping the leg of the child with the fingers of both hands, we move along the outer side of the shins with our hands in a circle. After reaching about 3 turns to the level of the knee, we begin to rub the muscles of the thighs. The knees themselves never rub off! The procedure is repeated about 6 times, the result should be a slight reddening of the skin.
We train legs
Other useful exercises, which includes gymnastics for children of 4 months, are the so-called sliding steps. It is also applied to the child lying on the back, aimed at strengthening the muscles of the children's legs. Do exercises with care, without sudden movements to avoid the risk of injury. The adult takes the baby's shin with his hands, while the big fingers of the masseur are placed on its outer side, and all the rest - on the inside. The child's leg is straightened and slightly shaken, then bent again. In this case, the heels of the baby should not break away from the surface of the table (the heel slides smoothly over it).
The procedure is repeated alternately with the left and right legs 4 times. Such a gymnastics for children of 4 months, in which the hypertension of muscle flexors is preserved, is not suitable, instead of it one can use the exercise described below (in the form of a reflex walk).
Carrying out this exercise, the kid "stands." In fact, you hold him by the armpits vertically, facing you, the soles of the baby feet lightly touching the hard surface. In this position, the reflex works, and the baby starts moving with his feet - "walking." To engage in reflex walking can be with a child starting from one and a half months.
Massaging the feet
Another useful exercise is massage your feet. It is applied to the baby lying on the back and consists of strokes, rubbing and effleurage. Three times stroking the child's feet, continue rubbing their outer and inner parts. It is necessary to move from the heel to the fingers.
After you have finished rubbing your feet, you can begin to beat. For this, several times (from 8 to 10) on the feet of the children's legs are easily struck with the index finger (its back surface), the direction of the massage is preserved. At the end of the foot, you must pat again.
Gymnastics for children 4-5 months includes an excellent developing and strengthening leg muscles procedure of extension-flexion of the foot. When performing it, we use a reflex bending of it when pressing from the sole to the base of the fingers. Forcing the baby several times to bend-unbend his foot, gently rub his outer edge for straightening. The procedure is repeated about 4 times.
Go to the handles
Massage the children's handles in the same position (putting the child on his back). The adult gives his thumb to the child, which he reflexively clamps into the fist. We need to hold the children's brush and make a few strokes in the direction of the shoulders, then the ring grinding that is already familiar to us. As for the legs, the exercise ends with a three-stroke stroking.
Ring grinding of hands is performed by active movements in a circle. For 4-6 turns, the fingers of the producing massage reach the elbow and then the shoulder. It is recommended about 5 repetitions, as a result of which there should be a slight reddening of the skin.
The next exercise, which offers gymnastics for children of 4 months, is to cross on the chest of children's pens. The kid still lies on the back, his arms crossed. The adult gives the child his big fingers in the palm of your hand and helps to squeeze the fists. Other fingers of the masseur easily hold the hands of children's hands, which are lightly shaken to the sides and again crossed. In this case, the position of the baby's arms relative to each other should be constantly changed: left upper, lower right, then vice versa. The procedure is repeated about 6 times.
Very useful exercises in the form of twists on the tummy. They should be dealt with several times a day. Lying on the back of the baby is held with the right hand by the legs in the lower leg. Putting your finger into the palm of your hand, holding your wrist with your left hand, carefully turn your body to the right side. The baby picks up the initiative and makes an independent turn to the left head and upper body.
At the moment of reaching the position on the right side of the child, the child is slightly held and pulled forward by his left handle, due to which a reflex flip to the position on the tummy occurs. The baby's handles are now placed under the chest. Turning on the tummy in the opposite direction (rolling through the left side) is done exactly the same. Gymnastics children 4-6 months, as a rule, such exercises do not already contain, because to this age kids are able to turn over themselves.
We pass to the next exercise - now the toddler is to lift his shoulders and head, lying on his back. As before, putting his thumbs on the child's hands and holding the others by the hands of both hands, gently pull the baby, making it easy to lift the head and shoulders. You can not put a child! It is recommended to perform such easy climbs around three.
It is very beneficial to massage the baby's tummy. Its main techniques consist of stroking various types (circular, counter or oblique muscles). Each of them is desirable to be repeated about 4 times. Then the tummy can begin to rub a little, at first in circular movements between the navel and the ribs (one hand). Then, with both hands, rub the rectus muscles of the child's tummy. The movements are quite active and produced in a certain rhythm. As a result, the skin of the baby acquires an easy pink shade. The massage ends with a soothing stroking.
Massaging the backrest
Do not forget to massage the back of the child. This is in the smooth strokes of the back and buttocks, produced by both hands. Up you lead the outer side of each palm, and downward - the inner side. The number of repetitions is also four.
Having finished stroking, begin to rub the child's back. In this case, circular motions with straight lines alternate. Rubbing is done by shifting the skin on the backrest up and down with the fingers of an adult's hand. Another kind of grinding of the children's back is spiraling. Make it with two hands: the left one - counter-clockwise, the right one - along it. Hands periodically change places.
Go to the breast massage.
Similarly, breast massage is performed by ordinary and circular strokes and vibration. The last procedure is done extremely cautiously with gentle pressure on the baby's chest from the middle to the sides. Stroke the baby on the intercostal spaces with fingertips.
It is good to strengthen the joints and muscles of children's handles, the so-called "boxer" exercise, which is a hand attack. Taking the children's handles already described earlier, alternately bend and unbend them. The toddler's shoulders are slightly raised, and from the side it seems as if he is boxing. For each hand is carried out for 6 repetitions, while sharp movements are prohibited to avoid injury.
Gymnastics for children 4 months on fitball
Excellent effect gives exercises on the ball, which, as a rule, very like the child. At the same time, the vestibular apparatus is well trained, and the muscles of the handles and legs are effectively relaxed. They must be performed no earlier than half an hour after a meal. The ball should be brightly colored, warm or at room temperature. This shell is obliged to cause the child only positive emotions.
Gymnastics for children 4 months on the ball begins with the fact that the baby is carefully placed on the fitball tummy, dilating the knees. Then the child gently rocking on the ball from side to side, and also in a circle. Be sure to firmly hold it by the back, beware of falling.
Gymnastics for children 4 months with dysplasia
Dysplasia of the hip joint infants suffer relatively often. It is found either in the maternity home, or when examined by an orthopedic doctor and is an innate subluxation of the hip joint. With an easy degree of its joint function is not violated.
Dysplasia can take one of three forms - from mild and aggravated, in which the normal relationship between the joint bag and the femoral head is disrupted. Symptoms of dysplasia are difficulties in the development of children's legs, clicks in the hips in the joints, asymmetry wrinkles, different lengths of legs.
Having noticed something like this, parents must necessarily consult an orthopedist. With a timely diagnosis, the first year of life can be corrected in the formation of the hip joint, which occurs after birth. Having found out a dysplasia and having appointed or nominated course of treatment, the doctor necessarily will recommend to you special gymnastics.
Features of action in dysplasia
The exercises begin with a special massage. The legs should be rubbed from the lower leg to the thigh easily and very carefully. Then massage the baby foot and gently rotate it in different directions.
It is necessary to grind the kid each of the fingers to unclasp them, use all the same reflexes or draw on the sole of the figure-eight.
Rubbed legs, turn to their kneading. Spiral-like movements move from the foot to the lower leg, pressing hard enough.
Gymnastics for children 4-5 months with dysplasia is the following methods:
1. One leg is held on the surface, the other is pressed against the tummy, alternating alternately.
2. Unbend the leg in the knee joint and set aside. Subsequently, you can do the same with just two legs. In this case, pay attention to how the baby reacts. If the exercise does not like him (it gives discomfort), we stop it.
3. Holding the heels of the child with his hands, slowly turn them around in a circle.
4. A good effect can be achieved with the following simple exercise. Pull the baby leg towards the face, touch the spout with it. Starting with 5-6 approaches, increase them daily by 1.
And now more difficult
To another, more complex set of exercises, you can go after a few weeks. It is preceded by a similar massage, which is now carried out on the stomach. The exercise consists in trying to maximally bend the children's legs in the hip joints with the pulling of the knees to the opposite elbows.
Another exercise - legs spread apart, then, holding the pelvis pressed to the surface position, touch the priests with heels. In this position, linger for 5-6 seconds.