What is the estate? Estates of Ancient Russia and the Russian Empire
It has long been in Russia between certain people who have inherited rights and duties, which were fixed by the state or traditions, existed class relations of feudalism. Characteristic for them was a hierarchy according to the principle of inequality of their position and privileges. This is the class in Russia in the main meaning of this concept. Other definitions say that the estate is people united by some characteristic or professional interests.
Now that we all know what a class is, let's follow the social structure in Ancient Russia.Without any doubt, the princes were considered the highest class then. However, after a certain period of time, the clergy began to be assigned to this group. Probably, they were ranked as the highest estate rank because of their landed property (ancestral lands). Brigade in Russia also enjoyed certain privileges.
What is the "estate" in the squad
Druzhina organization possessed its own hierarchical ladder. This, so to speak, was their internal division into "estates." At the highest level of the hierarchy were the elders (the oldest squad). These were the boyars. The lowest "class" was the younger squad. Representatives of this stage were called servants.
Middle classes people
This class included merchants, artisans, as well as owners of small estates. Most of the merchants were small traders, while the rich had the opportunity to trade outside their own country.
Lower classes of people
To this social class belonged the free rural population, which was imposed a tribute, as well as free citizens, called people. Unfortunately, we do not have historical data that would allow us to accurately establish the proportional ratio of the lower classes to the total population.
Not free servants of gentlemen were called slaves and servants. Among them a special category was the so-called smerds. These are serfs, who, in turn, were divided into three groups:
So, we have considered what the class of the times of Ancient Russia is. Now let's move to the 19th century and find out what kind of classes were in imperial Russia.
The estates of the Russian Empire
Estate in Russiathis time was determined by the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire and divided into four main groups:
In this case, the townspeople were divided into subgroups:
In general, such a class division was the hallmark of pre-revolutionary Russia and Europe. Nowadays, the formal classes are preserved only in Great Britain, since in this country the monarchy is officially proclaimed.
As we already know, belonging to a certain social class has always been regulated by heredity. However, there were some exceptions! It is interesting that in some cases it was possible to enter a certain class of people (for example, to become a prince) for special services or simply to buy a title for a tidy sum. We have disassembled what a class is and which classes existed in the times of ancient and imperial Russia.