Alloimmune antibodies are formed in those women who have a rhesus-factor conflict with the child. However, many women, having received the results of analyzes, do not always understand the consequences of this.
To begin with it is necessary to understand terminology. Such antibodies are formed when there is a conflict with the rhesus of erythrocytes. In particular, they can disturb a woman who has a negative Rp, but has a child with a positive. In this case, miscarriage may occur, and if the pregnancy continues, the baby can acquire a hemolytic disease.
Knowing that it is the carrier of negative rhesus, a woman must be observed at the doctor and regularly give tests for the definition of antibodies.
Throughout pregnancy, girls should be more careful about their health: drink vitamins, strengthen their immunity. Otherwise, there is a risk of catching any virus or infection. This can damage the placenta, which is a kind of conductor from mother to baby. In this case, the baby's erythrocytes will enter the woman's blood system, and this will inevitably lead to Rh-conflict.
When can a conflict occur?
Rp children will inherit from their parents. If both of them are positive, then the child, most likely, he will be the same. However, exceptions are encountered. If the mother and father of Rh are negative and positive, then the baby can take both one and the other factor.
If both have a negative, then in this case there is nothing to worry about. The child will take one hundred percent negative Rhesus, which means that there will be no conflict.
At what point can it happen?
- Childbirth. When bleeding, as a rule, the blood of the newborn enters the maternal, and this leads to the formation of antibodies. Fortunately, if pregnancy is the first, this will not affect either one or the other. But when they are repeated, they can affect the child.
- Trauma to the placenta. Detachment or damage to its integrity will cause the two blood systems to mix, and this will cause the appearance of antibodies.
- Abortion or ectopic pregnancy with a Rh-positive fetus also results in the ejection of red blood cells into the blood of the mother, where a conflict will occur.
- Involuntary transfusion. There are situations when a woman by mistake "digs" the blood of the wrong rhesus. By the time of pregnancy, there are already antibodies in her body.
The first pregnancy
The mother's womb is the first place of residence of the baby. She protects him from various injuries and helps to develop before birth. But even being in it, the child can feel the consequences of the rhesus conflict. For this, the following condition is necessary: the mother has a negative Rp, the fetus has a positive one.
The first pregnancy is the safest, even if both have different rhesus. If it proceeds without problems, then the risk of antibody formation is very low. Only after giving birth, when mixing blood of two types, they can get into the mother's blood.
There are several factors that affect the fetus during the first pregnancy.
- Abortions for medical (and not only) indications.
- Infectious diseases that caused a violation of the integrity of the placenta.
- Injuries that cause blood loss to the mother.
It is administered to all girls who have a negative Rhesus. As soon as a woman learns about her situation, she needs to report her problem to the doctor. He will give a referral to the analysis that determines alloimmune antibodies in pregnancy.
In the first weeks the conflict can manifest itself, triggering an involuntary miscarriage. Some do not even have time to learn that they are pregnant, as the body rejects the fetus with another rhesus. It is necessary to take a close look at this issue and register with the gynecologist as soon as possible.
Starting with the twentieth week, a woman will take tests for alloimmune antibodies once a month. By the onset of the last trimester, the frequency will be increased to two times. But closer to childbirth, at 35 weeks, will have to take samples every week.
If the situation is complicated by a high amount of antibodies, the expectant mother will be transferred to the hospital for more thorough observation.
In order to determine the presence of conflict, the woman donates blood from the vein, which is tested with special reagents. In the most severe cases, a cordocentesis is performed. For this, the umbilical cord is pierced, from which blood is taken. However, this method is very dangerous for the baby. It is resorted to in exceptional cases, when there is a suspicion of hemolytic disease of the child.
When will there be no conflict?
The mother's womb is a barrier to getting various viruses and infections during the development of the baby before it is born. In it, the fetus feels completely safe. But, unfortunately, it can not always save him from Rh-conflict. Experiencing about it is not necessary, if the mother and child have a negative Rp. This means that the baby inherited maternal rhesus, and their blood now will not "conflict."
There is no reason to worry and those mothers who have a positive Rp. Such people in the world are the majority - 85%. Even if the child has taken a paternal negative rhesus, there will be no conflict.
If the presence of antibodies is detected in time and the doctor is regularly examined, then in that case there will be no problems. Alloimmune antibodies can affect only the second and subsequent pregnancies. But by this time the mother will be prepared and will inform the doctor in advance about her negative rhesus.
What to do if there was a Rh-conflict during pregnancy? The consequences for the child may be different.
- First, in such a situation, the mother's organism perceives the fetus as a foreign body. Erythrocytes in the blood begin to produce special antibodies, which can lead to the destruction of the embryo. In response to this reaction, the child's body actively increases bilirubin. This hormone affects the functioning of the liver, spleen and other internal organs. It can also have a negative effect on the baby's brain, leading to various kinds of disorders.
- Rhesus conflict leads to a decrease in fetal hemoglobin. The child begins oxygen deprivation, which is very dangerous and can lead to a fading pregnancy.
- A large amount of bilirubin causes jaundice in a newborn.
- For the mother herself, who was not examined in time for the presence of antibodies, this could end in tears. Rhesus conflict can lead to premature birth.
Fortunately, women who have a negative Rp, not so much. On the whole planet there are no more than 15%. On future mothers is a huge responsibility - to bear and give birth to a healthy baby, if there was a rhesus conflict during pregnancy. The consequences for the child can be very difficult. For this reason, a woman should be thoroughly examined, and if necessary, go to the hospital for careful observation.