The most popular and most famous breed of dogs
The dog was one of the first animals domesticated by man, and for the past several hundred thousand years they have never parted. And if at an early stage on these tailed and intelligent four-legged creatures our ancestors looked like helpers, and even used their meat for food, and the skin for tailoring, today they are for many of us family members and best friends. In addition, for many dogs breeding has become a matter of all life. Therefore it is interesting to find out which is the most famous breed of dogs, how many of them were bred, and how the first specimens of this subspecies looked.
The first assistants of man
Scientists believe that the dogs were domesticated about 135 thousand years ago and their ancestors are wolves and jackals. At the same time there is a suggestion that not only the person tried to tame the wolf, but these animals themselves, for reasons not yet clarified, left their flocks and moved to live closer to people. Judging by archaeological findings, the first breeds of dogs that were bred during the Paleolithic period in Israel, Iraq and Syria were up to 60 cm high, and the smallest ones (less than 45 cm tall) lived in Switzerland, France, Spain and Germany. As for large dogs, growing over 60 cm, their tracks were found during the excavations of settlements in the territories of modern Germany, Russia and Ukraine.
It should immediately be noted that the concept of "breed" - not purely zootechnical. The fact is that it also includes cultural and historical aspects. In particular, even Aristotle in one of his works described what breeds of dogs there are in ancient Greece. However, in those centuries they were classified, mainly in the area where they were withdrawn. Later the variety of breeds increased, and even their varieties began to be distinguished. As for the current state of affairs in this area, 10 groups are considered in our country and in Europe:
- guard dogs and guard dogs;
- husky and Spitz;
- spaniels and retrievers;
- companion dogs;
- indoor and decorative dogs;
Now about the question of how many breeds of dogs there are at all. Here it is necessary to say that the International Federation of Cynologists is currently recognizing 339 breeds. Such a significant figure is another indication of how much interest people have shown to their four-legged friends over the centuries.
Characteristics adopted for the classification of canine breeds
Before you start a dog, you should know what to look for when choosing a dog. In particular, there are the following characteristics of dog breeds:
- the content in the apartment;
- the need for activity;
- difficulty in care;
- experience of the owner;
- compatibility with children;
- watchdog abilities;
- the level of molting;
- inclination to bark;
- life expectancy.
So, when choosing a breed, pay attention to which one is most suitable for a particular family. For example, Dobermans need a daily multi-hour exercise, and they are not the best choice for families with children, and a poodle can be the best friend for babies, but the cost of caring for it can breach a family budget with an average income.
Although game today is only one-hundredth of a percent of the meat ration of mankind as a whole, the breeds of dogs that were created to help hunters are popular today. A total of 45 are registered. And among them there are both ancient breeds, so relatively new ones, deduced 200-300 years ago and earlier. In addition, some of the traditionally hunting dogs today are regarded as guard dogs. After all, the overwhelming majority of them practically do not have to participate in pursuing wild animals. Whatever it was, at the moment the most famous breed of dogs for hunting is the Labrador Retriever.
Great companions in pursuit of game are also greyhounds, basset hounds, bloodhounds, Russian hound greyhound, Scottish setters and others.
Breeds of dogs for protection
The first domesticated animal was originally intended to help the owner to hunt and protect his life and home. And today many people want to know what the breed of dogs is called, which is best suited for these purposes. Dog experts say that the first place in the ranking of security dogs to protect a private house, of course, belongs to German and Caucasian sheep-dogs, rizenschnauzer, Moscow watchdog and Alabai. If it is assumed that the dog will live in an apartment, it is better to choose the individuals belonging to such breeds as boxer, cane corso, rottweiler or doberman. To give an idea of such dogs, it is worthwhile to tell about some of them in more detail:
- German Shepherd. As already mentioned, "the most, the most, the most" breeds of dogs for protection are former shepherd dogs, bred in different parts of our planet. In particular, the German Shepherd is distinguished by exceptional strength, agility and ingenuity. At the same time, it is easily trained and very devoted to its owner, who is ready to defend even at the cost of his life.
- Caucasian Shepherd Dog. The breed was specially bred to protect property and livestock. She considers the owners to be her family and is ready to do everything to protect them. However, the cynologists warn that it is possible to leave it with the child only on the condition that they grew up together.
- The Giant Schnauzer. These are very smart and obedient dogs that will not bark without reason, but always reflect any attack on the master. At the same time, they are born hunters and on a walk can chase a cat or squirrel, which will be in their field of vision.
There is undeniable evidence that even 6000 years ago dogs were used in military affairs. The ancient Romans even wore shells and special thorns on such dogs, preventing the enemy four-footed soldiers from clinging to their throats, and when the Persians conquered Egypt, mastiffs played a big role. Unlike them, the inhabitants of Assyria preferred to take on the war mastiffs, which were as evil as the greyhounds, accompanying in the campaigns of the Vikings.
And today in armies of many countries of the world there are divisions, manned with dogs. In particular, everyone knows that dogs are excellent assistants to sappers, and in the border troops they are simply irreplaceable when detaining offenders. The most famous breeds of dogs (with the photo you can see below) for the army service in many countries of Europe and in Russia are the German Shepherd, the Doberman and the Golden Retriever.
Dogs of the Husky, Samoyed and Malamute breeds have been used for more than 8,000 years as a draft force for harnesses traveling on snow and ice. As to what breeds of dogs were taken from us in the country, intended for the transport of people and goods, there are several of them: Yenisei, Gilyak Kamchatka, Yakut, Anadyr and Chukchi. By the way, it is appropriate to recall the famous "Great Mercy Race", which was organized in 1925 and saved hundreds of children's lives, since Alaska was transported with anti-diabetic serum on dog sleds.
Today, this type of transportation is used extremely rarely, but sports races are regularly organized for driving dogs.
The furry dog: the breed
Millions of people around the world even at a fairly respectable age adore soft toys. And when such a miracle is also happily running to the meeting, wagging the tail, then no one can resist. Therefore, it is not surprising that there are always a lot of people who want to start a fluffy dog.
Among the options that can be recommended, a separate mention deserve a bobtail, a chow-chow and absolutely charming bishon-frize. However, according to experts, the Tibetan mastiff is the most fluffy dog. This breed is considered one of the oldest in the world and it was invented by Buddhist monks who needed helpers during their travels through the Himalayas.
In the last few years among the so-called glamorous ladies it is considered fashionable to appear at various events with a tiny yapping creature on their hands. And the dog is smaller, the more prestigious it is. But seriously, the most popular breeds of dogs that are ideal for living in even the smallest apartments, such as Shih Tzu, Tetear, Pekingese, Pomeranian Pomeranian and others, are even used by psychologists for therapy, since they are able to lead their hosts from the state of depression. They are small in size and beautiful in character. For example, some representatives of Chihuahua parodies weigh only 500 grams with an increase of 10-15 cm.
The largest breeds of dogs
A big, loyal and strong friend - what could be better. However, large breeds of dogs for the house can not be maintained by every family. First, those who risk taking Neapolitan, English or Tibetan mastiffs, Russian hounds, the Central Asian sheepdog, the Great Dane and other giants, should be prepared to spend a lot of money on their food. In addition, these dogs need enough space, and keep them in a tight city apartment - it's just inhumane. And, finally, they need to walk every day for several hours, since the lack of movement is detrimental to their body.
Thanks to his exceptional sense of smell, strength and stamina, four-legged friends have long been used as rescuers in the mountains, on the water, in fires and other emergencies.
Even special breeds were brought out, whose representatives helped to save thousands of people for centuries. For example, the St. Bernards are engaged in saving travelers and mountaineers in the mountains from the 17th century, as they have the ability to feel the approach of a snow avalanche, and can also find lost or traumatized athletes and tourists. But the most famous breed of rescue dogs is, of course, Newfoundland, or a diver. These animals are not afraid of frosts and are able to swim even in water, the temperature of which is slightly above 0 degrees. As a result of selection, membranes appeared on their paws, and the presence of the third century and the special structure of the ears and paws allow these animals to dive to a depth of 30 m and swim the distances to 20 km. In addition, Newfoundland has no hunting instinct at all, which is replaced by a desire to rush into the water and pull a man going to the bottom.
Characteristics of some of the most famous dog breeds
Every year more and more people have four-legged pets. The most popular breeds of dogs that are most often chosen by townspeople are the English Cocker Spaniel, Pug and Yorkshire Terrier. Here are their main characteristics:
- Yorkshire Terriers. Such dogs have a very cheerful and sociable nature, thanks to which they are excellent companions. At the same time, a somewhat independent character sometimes becomes an obstacle to their learning. Among their advantages, it can also be noted that they get along well with other pets, but at the same time try to dominate them, even without paying attention to the difference in size. If children live in the house, then the owners have nothing to worry about, since such a fragile animal can not do any harm to babies. Rather, we need to ensure that the children carefully treat their four-legged friend.
- Pug. Pugs, especially in adulthood, are animals that are rather lazy and quiet, which you can rarely see wearing around the apartment. Due to this quality they are considered ideal companions for the elderly, leading a measured life. At the same time, they do not tolerate loneliness and therefore it is better for those who spend little time at home to choose a dog of some other breed.
- English Cocker Spaniel. These dogs are extremely smart and therefore very easy to learn. However, some individuals like to bark, which can cause problems with neighbors. Therefore, residents of apartments with poor sound insulation should think carefully before starting such a long-eared pet. Another disadvantage of this breed is the need for regular combing. The fact is that the wool of such dogs can easily fall apart if it is not followed by constant and thorough care.
Rare and endangered breeds
If a bulldog, a spaniel, a mastiff, a shepherd or a Dalmatian can be found in any courtyard, then only a few saw the Leonberger, the Leuchchen or the Brussels Griffin. So, figuring out which is the most famous breed of dog, it is also worthwhile to ask which dogs are the rare or vanishing variants created by breeders of dogs.
- The New Guinea singing. Such dogs for more than 30 thousand years lived in complete isolation in the inaccessible corners of Papua New Guinea, and no one knew about them until the 50s of the 20th century. This is the reason for the second name of this breed, which sounds like a "Stone Age dog".
- Sholoytskuintly. This breed was bred during the reign of the ancient Indian civilizations of Mexico, and its history dates back more than 3 thousand years. Its representatives look rather strange, since their bodies, with the exception of the head, are practically devoid of hair.
- Czechoslovak Witch. The dogs of this ancient native European breed are as close to wolves as in appearance and in other characteristics. It is generally believed that they occupy an intermediate position between wild species of their species and German shepherds.
- The Bergman Shepherd. Such a shepherd dog was bred in the Alps and is extremely shaggy. However, such dogs are not prone to molting and are extremely devoted to their masters.
- Swedish Valhound. These dogs at one time were faithful assistants and companions of the Vikings in their campaigns and, according to the cynologists, the history of this breed has lasted more than 1000 years. In addition, the valhounds were trained so that they grazed livestock and killed rats in the homes of their owners.
Now you know what breeds of dogs there are on the planet and what the first domesticated dogs looked like.