The problem of education
Education of a small person is a fairly responsible and complex process in which all are involved: teachers, parents, society.
At all times, the problem of education was very acute, it tried to solve, and experts, and parents, and public figures, developing recommendations and scientific papers.
But even now there is no true unified solution. After all, each kid is an individual with his own character: excitable or calm, assiduous or restless, therefore it is impossible to work out a single recipe for upbringing. It is only possible, using common fundamental principles, to apply an individual approach to the child, in accordance with his innate characteristics.
What is upbringing?
In modern pedagogy two semantic definitions of education are divided: broad and narrow.
The concept of "upbringing" in a broad sense is defined as a systematic, purposeful process of the combined impact of teachers and parents on both sides of a person, both physical and spiritual, in such a way as to develop the personality, prepare for a life in society and participate in all spheres of activity: cultural, industrial, . In other words, education provides for the transfer of the child's accumulated social experience and family traditions.
It is noted that one should not forget that the formation and development of personal characteristics is greatly influenced by the surrounding cultural environment and the situation in which a person is outside the family and school.
The concept of "education" in the narrow sense includes the development under the guidance of teachers and family members of a character, a moral and ethical position and positive qualities of social behavior of a member of society.
In the period from eleven to eighteen years in the child's body there are major changes: the hormonal background makes you grow up physically. Simultaneously, he also influences the psychoemotional state of children, they grow up.
In this regard, the education of adolescents is quite a difficult task, with which, unfortunately, not all can cope: it takes a lot of patience, attention and understanding from the adult environment.
Changes in the child's psyche are most often the following:
- reality is perceived as critically as possible;
- new, not always positive idols become models for imitation;
- behavior is prone to frequent changes of mood;
- on various issues formed his personal opinion;
- depending on the upbringing and living environment, there may be a craving for crimes, drug use, persistent lack of appetite, and so on.
But a serious problem of education does not arise with every teenager, and this is due not only to the individual innate qualities of the child. Of great importance in this is the previous upbringing and relations between family members.
If the child had enough love, parental warmth, care and embraces, but at the same time parents did not flow to his whims, then the child is unlikely to have the thought of engaging in criminal activities or forgetting.
Also important role is played by how confidently and democratically the parents communicated with the baby. The closer the relationship was, the greater the likelihood that they will persist in the teenager, which will allow him to share his experiences with his parents.
Therefore, trying to answer the question of how to raise a teenager, do not forget that this process begins long before the advent of the problem age. A general recommendation to help parents is to become an example for a teenager.
Importance of Family Education
Very often, children behave in a manner that leads their parents into a stupor: they just do not know what to do next. And one of such traits of the child's character is hysterics.
Some try to solve the problem by shouting, while others use physical influence. Only the result is usually zero, and in a similar situation, everything repeats.
Most often, the reason for this behavior is the problems of family upbringing, that is, the inconsistency and inconsistency of the actions of adults directly influencing the development of the baby. This can be expressed as follows:
- once they allowed to do something, and in the second they forbade it;
- a decrease in authority;
- one member of the family allows loudly turn on the TV (stomping through puddles, jumping on a bed, not eating up dinner, going to bed late, and so on), and the other is not.
This happens again because each member of the family grew up and was brought up in different conditions and developed its principles and rules.
Thus, everyone tries to conduct the process of education in their own way, personally. Nobody canceled the personal view of things here, but in order not to harm the kid, it is important without conflicts to coordinate their actions: discuss points of view, develop common approaches, discuss the situation.
Organization of the upbringing process
It has long been proven that the formation of a person's personality is directly dependent on relationships and upbringing in the family, which are the fundamental basis of all subsequent life. And the reliability and strength of this foundation will depend on the person's attitude to various life situations.
Therefore, it is important to build relationships so that the problems of family upbringing come to naught, be resolved peacefully and exert the least influence on the child.
Educational process is most easily performed in large families, as the attention of relatives is distributed evenly, and the elders look at the younger ones. In a large family there is a natural adaptation to communication and life in the team, teaching to caring and friendship.
The composition and structure of the family is of paramount importance to the child. No grandparents will replace mum or dad. Therefore, special attention is required by the process of education in single-parent families.
When a child is aware of this situation, it becomes painful, he can close. It is important to protect the child from adult ambitions and conflicts and try to surround him with even greater attention.
Several years ago, due to various circumstances, there was a weakening of attention to patriotic work by the state. As a result, less attention was paid to this issue in kindergartens, schools and universities.
But now the situation is changing, and the question of how to educate a patriotic personality again becomes relevant.
In pedagogy, patriotism is defined as the most important value that is expressed not only in the historical, cultural and military-ideological aspects, but also as a spiritual, moral and social characteristic.
The realization of the patriot's upbringing is promoted by:
- experimental research on the history of the war years;
- the organization of school museums;
- the introduction of children to work with veterans, and so on.
But the contradictions and, at the same time, the problems of patriotic upbringing are manifested in the fact that educational institutions, if they want to carry out this work, do not have enough conditions and opportunities for its implementation.
This concerns not only the material and technical base, but also the timely updating of methodological aids, establishing contacts with families on these issues. Also, there is a shortage of trained specialists and the most extensive coverage of issues of patriotism in the mass media.
Actual problems of education
Modern pedagogy divides education into four types:
- Dictatorship is the systematic suppression of dignity, personal qualities and initiative by older children or adults. As a result - resistance, fears, lack of confidence and lower self-esteem, unwillingness to do anything.
- Non-intervention (inaction) - giving the child complete freedom. The problem of education in this method is that detachment from the family, suspicion and suspicion are developed.
- Hyperopeka - is the full provision of the child and at the same time protecting him from emerging difficulties. Using this method, parents educate egocentrism, lack of independence, weakness in decision-making.
- Cooperation - is based on the community of interests, support, joint activities. This style leads to independence, equality, family unity.
Usually in families there is a clash of all styles, which is the main problem of education.To solve it, it's important to understand that you need to use all styles. But only their symbiosis, rather than confrontation, will make it possible to avoid even greater problems.
How to raise boys
Almost all parents of sons have a question about how to raise a boy a decent and courageous person.
Many do not even suspect how important the son is the care and love of the pope, and not just my mother. Men think that they should not show such feelings, but meanwhile they relieve tension and allow the relationship to be sincere.
In our age, full of events and crises, modern children, more than ever, need to communicate with their parents.
For the boy it becomes necessary to go with the dad to the park, ride a bike, make a birdhouse, help my mother, and there are not many men's lessons to find! Communication with the older generation is also important. Such continuity will make it possible to transfer this style to your family in the future.
Also, for the development of the boy, employment in sports or tourist sections will be useful, which will strengthen not only and not so much health as character.
Education of a girl
It's no secret that the peculiarities of the education of boys and girls differ somewhat, and this is due not only to gender, but also to life's tasks.
The girl tries to look like mother in everything, which is an example for her daughter. She learns to communicate with her husband, men and people around her, do household chores, receive guests, spend holidays and much more. Therefore, it is important for mother to follow her own manner of speaking and the actions she is taking.
Friends, relatives and acquaintances also influence education. It is important to emphasize in the eyes of the girl the positive qualities, the dignity of people and the fact that my mother would like to see them from her daughter. She will certainly try to fulfill her mother's wish.
Teaching teenagers requires special attention. It is necessary to try to be unobtrusive about the interests of the daughter at this age, to know the circle of her friends and friends, if necessary, to point out the shortcomings and adjust her attachments. To do this, you can draw the girl's attention to the heroes of books or films.
Also important for the future hostess is the occupation of needlework, household chores, cooking. At mum she can learn to look after itself, style and taste in things.
A special role is assigned to the upbringing of the girl to the pope, he should, like his mother, give her flowers, give a hand, congratulate on holidays, talk compliments and more. This will save the daughter in the future from fears and complexes of communication.
Theoretical Foundations of Education
The theory and methodology of education, although they are called upon to solve the same problem, come up to this in completely different ways.
The theory of upbringing is divided into three main groups (the rest are their derivatives):
- Biogenic. This direction is based on the fact that personality properties are hereditary and almost not subject to change.
- Sociogenic. It is asserted that only social factors influence the development of the personality.
- Behavioral. It is believed that the person has skills and behavioral habits.
Apparently, the statement that the truth is contained somewhere in the middle will be fair.
Methods and styles of education
Modern children in Japan are brought up on the principles of separation into time intervals, each of which develops a certain set of qualities. Up to five years absolutely everything is allowed, and upon reaching this age and up to fifteen years the child is placed in a rigid framework, the violation of which causes family and social censure. After a lapse of fifteen years a person is considered old enough to communicate on an equal footing.
Since the sixties of the last century, the popularity of the Nikitin method, which takes the early physical development of children as a basis for harmonious education, has not decreased.
No less used Valfdor's method for raising children is based on the spiritual and creative development and the use of only natural materials.
The educational technique of Glenn Doman is considered a method of early development of children and a recipe for the education of geniuses. The basis of this method is development from the very birth. The system requires a lot of time and self-discipline from the parents, but in the end it gives amazing results.
The method of bringing up Maria Montessori is another widely used system. This method consists in encouraging the child to take independent actions, analyze and correct mistakes. In the game, he decides what and how much to do, and the functions of teachers are to help the child do everything himself.
The main for all directions is the systematic nature of classes and following one system, rather than jumping on different methods.