One family - one child - politics in China
China is one of the most numerous countries in the world. This happened historically. Many families in this country have many children. The territory of China, although large, but the population on it in abundance. Because of this, the country's authorities decided to influence the demographic situation by issuing the decree "One Family - One Child".
Features of this decree
This policy was introduced in the country in the 70s of the last century. It is connected with the fact that at that time in China there were many families with many children. Because of this, the country's economy and living standards have declined. There was nowhere to resettle large families - they simply did not have enough square meters to live. As a consequence, such families demanded the care of the state, benefits, and so on. Therefore, for families where only one child was born, all the best that could be given by the state at that time was provided. And for those who had children for some reason, the fine was from 4 to 8 average annual incomes of the region where the family lived. Parents literally bought children.
"One family - one child" - a policy in China - pursued the goal of reducing the population by 2000 to 1.2 billion people. Administrative measures were introduced, contraceptive methods were actively promoted, and abortions became popular. But why was China so populous?
Historical background for many children in China
China has been famous for its large population since the time of the samurai. They actively engaged in the development of land, while their wives watched family life and gave birth to children. This tradition began to actively continue after the Second World War. At this time, the authorities of the country saw that many people died in the world, in their state it was necessary to raise the economic level of development, and given the installation for many children. Actively encouraged the birth of 3-4 children in the family.
When the population began to grow at a rapid pace, attempts were made to reduce these rates, and various restrictions were introduced for families. But the policy of "One Family - One Child" in China became the most extreme measure of influence on the demographic situation in the country. It was formally adopted in 1979.
Features of population accounting in China
This policy already at that time had its pitfalls and shortcomings. Everything is related to the specifics of accounting for the number of people and the attitude to the female sex. In China, there is no registration of children born, and accounting is only for the number of people who died in the family for 1 year. This approach does not satisfy the exact population requirement in the country, therefore it is more than the statistical data.
The policy "One family - one child" immediately encountered problems at the gender level. In this country there is not such an attitude towards the female sex, as in Europe. Women there are much lower than men in status and rights. Therefore, when the girl first appeared in the family, parents clandestinely sought permission to have a second child. It turned out that the authorities decided who to give birth to a second time, but who should not.
How are children related to the country's economy?
As a result of the policy "One family - one child," the authorities still achieved some positive moments. The age composition of the Chinese has changed, and the approach to financing families has also changed somewhat. For one child, the state spends far less money than on three or five. As a result, the issue of raising wages is not an urgent issue, thus saving cheap labor while increasing the working capacity of the population. In addition, women, freed from the obligation to monitor small children, could go to work earlier, which also had a favorable effect on the economic growth of the state. In addition, the authorities did not have to think about how to feed and teach the second and subsequent children.
All this is good, and even there was an ideal period for the country, when there are not enough children, and the old people are still few. But the policy "One family - one child" (China) has shown its inverse sides with time. Problems began that were not immediately calculated.
Excess Older Chinese
When there was a period of a small number of elderly Chinese, no one thought about what would happen next, and the authorities were satisfied with the policy "One family - one child." The problems began already closer to 2010: the population was redistributed, people aged became an order of magnitude larger. They now needed to be looked after, but there was no one to do it. The able-bodied population actively works, but young people are few.
The country was also not ready for a pension policy, under which the state assumes responsibilities for the maintenance of older people. Therefore, even in 70 years, many Chinese people had to work hard to earn a living.
There was a problem of lonely elderly people. There was an additional burden on social services to inspect these people. It turned out that in one household sometimes there was one person who could not cope with the physical load.
The problem of childish egoism in connection with such a policy of the authorities
The second underwater stone of the policy "One family - one child" was the problem of raising children. On the one hand, the ability to properly raise one child, give him everything he needs, much more than to provide all this for the seven. But many have noticed that children have become too selfish. Even there was such an example, when the mother became pregnant with the second child, and the first teenage girl gave her a condition: either the mother makes an abortion or the girl ends up suicide. This was due to a selfish desire to get all the attention from the parents and not share it with anyone else.
The problem of selective abortions
Given the attitude of the Chinese to women, and the imposed restriction on the number of children in the family, it is not surprising that the parents wanted to have a boy. But the floor is not predictable, so many began to look for the opportunity as soon as possible to determine who they will have to get rid of the unwanted girl.
There were illegal services for the implementation of ultrasound to determine the sex of the fetus, although this is prohibited by law. "One family - one child" - a policy in China - led to selective abortions, which have become a familiar phenomenon among Chinese women.
The problem of finding spouses for young Chinese
As a consequence, after the general birth of boys, the number of girls in the country has significantly decreased. At first, this also did not see any problem. It is much better to have a boy in a family who will then become a breadwin. Politics even in some circles changed its name: "One family - one child with higher education." Parents were proud of the opportunity to give their son a quality education, because they had the opportunity to teach him.
But the years go by, there are fewer and fewer girls in the country, there are many guys, and there was another problem - finding a spouse or just a couple. In China, on this basis, homosexuality began to flourish. The reasons for this in most cases were covered in the excess of the male population. Some statistics show that young people who practice same-sex relationships are ready to enter into a traditional marriage, if there is such an opportunity. At the moment the number of male population prevails over the female as much as 20 million people.
Childbirth in Hong Kong. Excess womanbirth
The policy, allowing to have no more than one child in the family, determines the quotas for the birth of the baby. Therefore, most Chinese women who decided on their second child were forced to travel for childbirth to another territory - to Hong Kong. There the laws are less strict, and no one imposed any quotas. But the problem arose in the smallest state. After all, the number of Chinese women is large, and the capacity of maternity hospitals is calculated for the officially registered population of Hong Kong. As a result, not all the local residents had the opportunity to give birth to children in comfortable conditions - hospitals constantly lacked places. The authorities of both states began to struggle with "mother tourism".
The future of the country with this policy
The policy of raising only one child in China led to the emergence of a new private holiday for the population - the day of twins. For the family, the birth of twins was considered a great event, since it gave them the right to raise their two children. No matter how much the authorities try to prevent it, but you will not go against nature. When future parents found out that they will have twins, their happiness was not the limit - it freed them from the fine for the second child and increased the family already by two small miracles. The country began to organize festivals of twins about this.
But this law does not apply to small national minorities, which do not exceed 100 thousand people for the population of the whole of China. These people are also lucky - they have the right to give birth to as many children as they want.
Analyzing all the problems and pitfalls of the law on one child per family adopted in the late 70s of the twentieth century, the Chinese authorities came to the conclusion that it was necessary to somehow mitigate its formulation and allow the population to have not only one child to bear. As a result, "One family - one child" - a policy in China - was abolished. This happened in October 2015.
The country's leadership has approved a new law on allowing families to have two children. According to their forecasts, this will solve the problem with selective abortions, there will be no such pursuit of boys in families, and many will allow themselves to raise girls as well. In addition, there will be less drastic reduction of the young population, and two young children will come to replace two old parents. In addition, not all Chinese women can have children, and some will remain with one child. Therefore, the demographic situation will not change significantly with the adoption of the new law.
“One family - one child”: cancellation of the policy
Of course, there are rumors about the cruelty of the Chinese authorities in relation to procreation. The people of this country sighed a little easier when, from January 1, 2016, the policy of the birth of one child in the family was finally abolished. But than it is dictated? Enhanced care for the moral component of the population. The thing is that this law, which has been in force for about 35 years, has become very contrary to the economic interests of the country. That's why the policy "One family - one child" is canceled. What does this give the country and young parents?
Some are wary of this cancellation, since they admit the idea of a baby boom. But one should not be afraid of a drastic change in the demographic situation. The fact is that in recent years (from 2013) the policy has been relaxed - it was allowed to have two children in those families where at least one of the spouses grew up alone in the family. Thus, the Chinese were gradually prepared for the abolition of politics.
For young families, cancellation is a breath of fresh air. After all, at the legislative level, they were allowed to bring up not "little emperors" - selfish children, but two full members of society who know how to be in the team.