Navruz-bairam - a holiday of spring! Traditions of celebrating Nowruz
Navruz-bairam is an ancient holiday celebrated by residents of many countries of Asia and a number of regions of Russia. The date of its holding is the twenty-first of March. This is the day of the vernal equinox. In addition, according to the astronomical solar calendar, which is officially used in Afghanistan and Iran, Navruz-Bayram is the first day in the coming new year.
The holiday is celebrated in spring. It symbolizes the renewal of man and nature. Navruz is translated from Farsi as "new day".
History of occurrence
Navruz-bairam is one of the oldest holidays that existed in the history of mankind. In Persia (modern Iran), as well as in Central Asia, it began to mark a very long time, even before the seventh century BC. In connection with the deep historical roots of the holiday, its exact origin is unknown.
Traditions of Navruz are associated with the name of the founder of the religion of Zoroastrianism, the prophet of Zarathustra, and also with the cult of fire and the sun. The most ancient source, where this holiday is mentioned, is the sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism Avesta. It is in it that it is said that in the spring it is necessary to celebrate the appearance of life.
The Navruz-Bairam festival is also associated with the reign of Shah Jamshid. This legendary ruler sang in the poem "Shahname". It is also believed that it was on this day that the hero of Siyavush, killed by Turan Afrasiyab, was buried.
They talk about the holiday and the Turkic legends. They mention this day as the date of the appearance of the Turkic people from the mythical place of Altai - Ergenekon.
Where is Navruz celebrated?
Most brightly and widely this day is celebrated by the peoples of Afghanistan and Iran. According to the official calendars of these countries, a new year comes with his arrival.
At the same time, Navruz is a holiday of spring. It is on March 21 that the duration of the day equals night, and then gradually overtakes it. Finally comes into its own spring. This holiday is the beginning of the field affection, which is the care and hope of the farmers. That is why Navruz-bairam is a celebration not only of the beginning of the new year, but also of agricultural work.
This day is celebrated in Tajikistan and Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan, Turkey and India, Macedonia and Albania, Kyrgyzstan and in some regions of the Russian Federation (Bashkiria and the North Caucasus, Tatarstan and the Crimea). In Arab countries, the day of the vernal equinox is not celebrated.
Spring rites celebrate the solar calendar, which is called the ancient Iranian (shamsi). In it, the first days of each month coincide with the new moons. At the same time, these dates are shifted annually for ten to eleven days. The holiday begins when the solar disk enters the constellation of Aries. Earlier this moment was determined by astrologers - munagizhimi - people of a very revered profession in the East. Currently, this event is calculated by astronomers and is indicated on the calendar to the nearest minute. In addition, this moment is notified on television and radio.
Navruz-bairam is an official holiday in Afghanistan and Iran. In this case, the first five days in the new year, as well as the thirteenth, are non-working. In other countries, Navruz is a folk festival. However, in fact, it is the same everywhere. This is the day of a solemn and joyful meeting of spring.
The traditions of celebrating the vernal equinox vary only slightly from one country to another, and also from the region to the region. The inhabitants of different countries pronounce it in different ways. So, in Iran it is Nouruz, in Afghanistan - Novruz, in Iran and Turkey - Nevruz.
From our New Year this holiday has a significant difference. It is celebrated not at night, but in the light of day. However, like us, this is a family event. At the onset of the solemn moment, everyone should be at home at the festive table. The whole family is sure to get together to meet Navruz. Traditions provide for the presence on the festive table, except for dishes, seven items. In this case, their names must necessarily begin with the letter "c". Their list includes ruta (sepand), greens of germinated grains (saben), garlic (sire), apples (sib), vinegar (sirke), thyme (satar), wild olives (sinjid). In the middle of the table there is necessarily a large loaf called sangak, there is also a vessel with water, in which a green leaf floats, as well as plates on which the painted eggs lie.
All foods should certainly emphasize the agricultural orientation of the holiday of spring. For example, egg, greens and bread symbolize fertility.
The celebration of Navruz in the countryside begins with a furrow. At the same time behind the plow is the most respected resident. In the first furrow, he throws a little grain. Only then can all fieldwork begin - harrowing, plowing, sowing, etc.
The celebration of the thirteenth day
Among the Tajiks, Persians and Hazaras (Afghan nationality), this day is called "Sidzeh Bedar". In translation this means "Thirteen at the gate". The townspeople visit gardens and parks on this day, they leave cheerful companies outside the city limits. Peasants go out into groves and meadows. On these picnics bring sweets to the year was happy.
The main traditions of Nowruz
Before the beginning of the new year, it is customary to arrange general cleaning in the house, and also to update the wardrobe of all members of the family. Those who celebrate the holiday Navruz-bairam, until the day of the vernal equinox should give all the debts, forgive the grievances and make peace with ill-wishers.
According to the existing tradition, before the New Year a fire festival is held. It takes a rather unusual way. On the last Tuesday of the year, bonfires are lit on the streets. It happens after sunset. Through fire, by tradition, all jump - children and adults.
During the celebration on the table must be vases with flowers and candles, mirrors and fruits, as well as a variety of dishes, for example pilaf. According to the traditions of the Afghan people, Navruz prepares a special compote called haftmev. In its composition - fruits of almonds and pistachios, light and dark raisins, walnuts and senched. Kazakhs on the festive table put a special dish - nauryz skin. It also includes seven components: water and flour, meat and butter, milk and cereals, salt. There are several recipes for cooking this dish. In this regard, each hostess is preparing in different ways.
According to the existing tradition, during the celebration of the New Year, the dead are commemorated, and in the first days of Navruz they visit friends and parents.