Polyhydramnios during pregnancy: causes and consequences
During pregnancy, the future mother has to undergo a variety of studies from the earliest possible time. Regularly before each examination, a woman gives a blood and urine test. According to these indicators, the specialist determines the health status of the fairer sex. Approximately once every three months, the future mother visits the ultrasound diagnostic room. During such a study, there is sometimes a diagnosis of polyhydramnios during pregnancy. Causes, consequences, treatment of this pathological process will be presented to you in the article. You will also be able to find out how this condition affects the birth of the baby's future.
Before you find out the causes of polyhydramnios during pregnancy, the consequences and ways to eliminate it - you need to say how usually an increase in the amount of water passes. Normally, the fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid throughout the gestation period. At 12 weeks, its amount is about three tablespoons. At this time during ultrasound do not pay special attention to the index of amniotic fluid.
With the course of pregnancy, the amount of water increases. So, by 30 weeks its volume reaches just over half a liter. Before the very birth, which must take place on time, the amniotic fluid fills from one to one and a half liters of the uterus. It should be noted that many women of this sex are reduced to the beginning of labor.
Causes, effects on childbirth, the consequences of this condition will be described later. Before this we give a definition and description of this term. Polyhydramnios called the state of pregnancy, when the amount of amniotic fluid is significantly exceeded. Note that the volume does not always go beyond the allowed limits. Sometimes the approach to the higher norm is already characterized by the term "multimodal moderate".
There is a classification of the described state. An increase in the amniotic fluid index may be chronic or acute. The latter, in turn, is more dangerous. Diagnose this condition can be by external indicators, complaints of a woman or through ultrasound diagnosis. The chronic form of pathology is characterized by a gradual increase in the volume of amniotic fluid. In acute polyhydramnios, the level of the amniotic fluid grows intensively for several hours or days.
Symptoms of polyhydramnios
It is not always possible to determine this state. Very often a woman learns about her diagnosis only with the next ultrasound. More often it happens at a chronic current of a pathology. However, there are other signs of the problem.
Intense growth of the abdomen. With polyhydramnios, the height of the bottom of standing of the genital organ exceeds the norms for its term. The circumference at the level of the navel is more than 100 centimeters. A woman can complain about shortness of breath, heaviness when walking, rapid fatigue, the appearance of stretch marks.
Unusual symptoms. If you had to deal with polyhydramnios, then you probably know what fluctuation is. With this syndrome, the future mother clearly hears in silence the gurgling sounds from her belly. Also, a child may have decreased activity. The baby moves, as expected, but the woman does not feel these tremors because of the large volume of water.
Doubtful signs. Also, with polyhydramnios, symptoms may appear, which sometimes accompany other pathological processes. These are swelling of the legs, increased blood pressure, headaches, impaired kidney function and so on. It is impossible to put exclusively the above diagnosis on these symptoms.
Why does it appear?
What are the causes of polyhydramnios in pregnancy? Symptoms of this pathology are already known to you. The true situation, which led to an increase in the amount of amniotic fluid, is not always found. Doctors say that polyhydramnios are diagnosed in one future mother of a hundred. It can be concluded that this disease is not so common. Much more often pregnant women have to face with water scarcity.
Even with the development of modern medicine, most women have a diagnosis of "polyhydramnios of unknown origin". Less often, the cause is established and appropriate therapy is prescribed. Usually treatment of polyhydramnios is carried out in the walls of the hospital. At the same time, the amount of liquid is observed daily with an ultrasound scanner. Let's consider, what has the polyhydramnios (moderate, chronic, acute) reasons and methods of treatment.
The most common cause of a pathology is infection. It can be a sexually transmitted disease. Also often the cause of the problem is the inflammatory process in the pelvic organs in women. That is why physicians are strongly advised to undergo all examinations before pregnancy planning and, if necessary, to carry out treatment.
Correction of this cause is carried out under the supervision of doctors. A woman is usually prescribed antibacterial or antiviral therapy. However, before that, types of infections are established.
The causes and consequences of polyhydramnios are interrelated. If the future mother has a negative Rh factor, and the child's father has a positive Rh factor, then a conflict may arise. Usually, this does not happen during the first pregnancy. After birth, antibodies in the woman's blood can form, which in subsequent pregnancies will try to destroy the alien body. This often develops polyhydramnios.
Eliminating an existing problem can be difficult. However, prevention allows a woman not to face the development of Rh-conflict. For this purpose, an immunoglobulin is administered. We note that the procedure takes place at a certain time under the supervision of specialists. These funds are only issued by prescription.
Malformations of the fetus
Has also other polyhydramnios during pregnancy causes. And the consequences of such a state will be appropriate. If in the period of the formation of the organs and systems of the baby some kind of failure occurred, then vices develop, which are subsequently called congenital. Often this condition is accompanied by polyhydramnios.
Correction of congenital malformations of the baby is not always possible. But often with timely detection, treatment is prescribed immediately after childbirth.
The described situations are the most frequent, which lead to the development of polyhydramnios acute or chronic. But there are other reasons for this pathology. Among them are:
- the age of the woman (up to 18 or after 35 years);
- wrong lifestyle (eating disorders, bad habits);
- diseases (diabetes mellitus, vascular pathology);
- multiple pregnancy and so on.
Polyhydramnios during pregnancy: the causes and consequences - is there any relationship?
Doctors say that, depending on what caused the development of the disease, we can talk about the outcome. If polyhydramnios appeared due to rhesus-conflict, then later the child can develop such diseases as jaundice of newborns, increased bilirubin. Less often, the embryo dies before it is born.
With intrauterine infection, the disease can pass to the baby at the time of delivery. In this case, the severity of the child's condition will be determined depending on the type of infection. If it is a question of diabetes, then often there is a gestosis leading to hypoxia.
As you can see, if the development of polyhydramnios during pregnancy - the causes and consequences are interrelated. When this pathology is detected, it is necessary to start correction as soon as possible. If the cause is not clear, the woman is prescribed drugs that support the normal state of the baby: drugs to improve blood supply, sedative medications, restorative and so on.
How does polyhydramnios affect the course of labor?
Often when polyhydramnios (if there is suffering a baby) is recommended early delivery. In most cases, a cesarean section is performed. If a woman's condition does not carry a threat to the child, then natural childbirth is allowed.
Often contractions at polyhydramnios are weak. Thus doctors resort to a dissection of a fetal bladder. If the water is left alone, a strong stream can carry a part of the umbilical cord, the leg or the handle of the child into the cervical canal. All this may end up rather deplorable.
In the process of labor during polyhydramnios, weakness of labor can be noted. In this case, doctors resort to stimulation. Future mothers are injected with drugs that enhance the contractility of the genital organ.
You already know what causes and consequences of pregnancy in many cases. It is worth noting that most of these births begin with the help of specialists. Independent contractions may not begin until 42 weeks of pregnancy.
The most dangerous consequence of polyhydramnios is the detachment of the placenta, which occurs prematurely. This woman needs emergency medical help. Otherwise, there is a threat to the life of mom and baby.
You learned what polyhydramnios are. Diagnosis and treatment, consequences and causes are presented to your attention. Remember that now you are responsible for the health and life of the unborn child. Do not let the situation go by itself. With skilled care and the timely use of suitable medications, the problem usually does not lead to serious consequences. All the best to you!