Incandescent lamp: varieties
Lamps are devices designed to illuminate space and create an artificial light source. They differ in shape, size, power, rating and type of voltage used, as well as a way of obtaining illumination. The most popular is the traditional incandescent lamp. In addition, halogen, luminescent, energy-saving, neon, xenon, quartz and other types of lamps are used.
At present the incandescent lamp can have different power, size and operating voltage. These devices are arranged as follows. In the glass flask there is a metal arc (usually of tungsten), through which an electric current flows. During the passage of electricity, heating occurs, and the incandescent lamp begins to emit a large amount of thermal and light energy. The main disadvantage of this device is the allocation of a large amount of heat.
When replacing the instruments immediately after shutdown or during operation, you can get burned if you do not use protective equipment. In addition, lamps can not be used in luminaires that are limited in temperature. For example, in the night sconce there should not be an incandescent lamp of 100 watts. Nevertheless, the devices have many advantages. Firstly, this is a large spread of capacities (from 15 to 1000 watts). In addition, the bulbs can be powered from various voltage sources (alternating or permanent, from 1 to 240 volts). The incandescent lamp may have diffusing and transparent bulbs.
Halogen lamps are similar to their counterparts, only in their flasks there are pairs of bromine or iodine. A small improvement makes it possible to increase the light output and to increase the service life of the device in half. Otherwise, this is a normal device.
The luminescent lamp also contains a gas, which, due to a special coating (phosphor), causes visible light radiation after passing current through it. The advantage of these devices is an increased supply voltage, reaching a mark of 380 volts. Also, these devices have a low heating temperature (up to 40 degrees), and their service life is much higher.
The fluorescent lamp is mainly used in industrial environments to illuminate industrial premises, creating a light that is as close to natural as possible.
An energy saving lamp is a device that has a reduced energy consumption. By its design, it is gas-discharge. This device uses up to eighty percent less electricity than a conventional incandescent lamp, while the service life is increased by 5 times. In addition, energy-saving lamps do not heat up much. The main drawback is their relatively slow glow and high cost. Despite this, they are gaining popularity among consumers.
Ultraviolet and quartz lamps are used in special areas of human activity. For example, in medicine, quartz performs a bactericidal function or is used to treat patients. Ultraviolet is used in forensic science, trade, and also in solariums for obtaining sunburn.