Lace French: history, technology, reviews
France is not the birthplace of lace, but it is this country that gave the world a variety of techniques of weaving and made an openwork synonym for luxury and exquisite taste. Today, it is often the French lace that adorns the fashionable outfits of stars and public figures around the world. It is available to any woman.
Origin of lace in France
Following Italy and Belgium, France becomes the third European state, in which high standards and traditions of lacework are born. In the 16th century, lace fashion in France became very stable thanks to the queen Catherine and Maria de 'Medici. Both of them were Italian and from their country brought love to the lace. Catherine even invited from Italy an artist named Vinciolo, who creates a large collection of lace patterns, at that time existing in the world.
It was Italy, as the birthplace of lace, supplied the delicate weave with the then trendy ornamentmorocco To France. Of course, it cost such a lace fabulously expensive and was available only to the richest French.
Naturally, the desire of Parisian women of fashion to have a home similar production was great. And already in the middle of the XVII century in Alençon there are skilled workers who tried to repeat the technique of Venetian lace.
Even the finance minister did not stay away from the problem. He understood that the money went abroad, and in the production of azhura lies a gold mine. He made Alencon the center of the craft. Moreover, in his castle he created the semblance of a school, where he wrote 30 craftsmen from Venice to train local girls in the art of weaving.
However, Italy was not ready to share its secrets of mastery with other countries. Like glassblowers, lace makers were persecuted by the Italian authorities, and soon the skilled workers were forced to leave France. However, they managed to teach the craft of French women, and only a year later the Minister of Finance presented the king with the first local lace. French handicrafts impressed the king, and he ordered not to order more lace from other countries. All were obliged to appear to court only in the products of local craftsmen.
Further history of French lace
It should be noted that needle-sewn guipure produced in Alençon was not only inferior in quality to Italian, but also superior to it. The drawing of French lace was smaller, elegant and varied. The craftsmen embroidered not only ornaments and plant motifs, but also figures of animals and people. They created a large number of nets, serving as the basis for future lace and allowing even more to diversify the composition. The ornament was not only bristled with horse hair, even human hair was taken for finer work. And the drawings themselves were invented by outstanding artists of that era.
In the 17th century, the guipure was replaced by a lighter and more gentle tulle as the basis for embroidery, and by the end of the century there was a tendency to place the pattern only along the edge, filling the rest of the space with a so-called "bulk" ornament - a scattering of butterflies, flowers or flies.
One of the varieties of French lace, which has become so popular that it is widely used to this day - chantilly. This is a lace woven from a black silk thread. Its name is due to a small town near Paris, where in the XIX century began to weave so-called blonds - another kind of weaving. Later the lace of chantilly became popular when it was made in Cannes and Bayeux.
Chantilly features not only black color, but also a grid in the form of honeycombs, as well as ornament, which for a more voluminous figure can change the frequency of thread weaving. The contours of the picture are also embroidered with a denser thread, which makes the figure more expressive.
The greatest popularity of chantilly was obtained under Napoleon III, mostly large things were sewn from him: cloaks, mantillas, umbrellas, skirts.
Chantilly - from history to modernity
Technical progress gave the chantilly a new impetus to popularity. There was an opportunity of sewing laces by machine, which made it more accessible. At the beginning of the 20th century, the dress, consisting of a light cover and a top layer of chantilly, becomes very fashionable throughout Europe. Silk and black velvet are added to it for a more dramatic image.
With the advent of cinematography, chantilly becomes a companion of cinematographers - Ava Gardner, Marlene Dietrich, Rita Hayworth use the dramatic and fatal character that this lace possesses.
The French charm of chantilly is not forgotten by modern designers. It can be found in the evening dresses from Prada, Valentino, Eli Saab and other leading designers.
Shuttle lace tatting
This lace has received the name from the French word "frivolous", but it was not born in France at all. This is so ancient kind of needlework that its roots could not be traced. However, it was from France that it came to Russia, where the French name got its lace.
This is the shuttle lace, which is woven by hand from knots. For frivolite, thicker and coarse threads are used than for other types of lace, and originally in this technique, mainly created interior items - drapes, bedspreads, lampshades. In the XVIII century, the frivolite adorns and clothes.
Today, in the technique of frivolity, decorative elements of the costume, jewelry and costume jewelry are made. To produce frivolite, take a thick silk or cotton thread and create a bizarre volumetric composition by means of knotted weaving.
Production of modern French lace
Modern technology allows you to create a lace machine, which made it affordable and very familiar decorative costume decoration. However, today there are manufacturers who create man-made masterpieces, as it was in the 17th century - the real French lace. Its price is high enough, but the quality is unbeatable. Such lace is created, for example, in the workshops of SOPHIE HALLETTE and RIECHERS MARESCOT and their lace, as well as 200 years ago, is a luxury item. "Barberry", "Gucci" and other fashion houses sew from their lace outfits. It is worn by Kate Middleton and Queen Elizabeth.
There are more affordable manufacturers, for example, today in Russia you can buy ready-made lace dresses made using technologies that repeat French lace. Indonesia is an example of this - it is this country produces clothes under the brand name "French lace".
But those who want something unique, are invited to buy authentic old French lace. Vintage ribbon lace is sold at a price of 350 rubles, depending on its age, and a more beautiful needle lace can be bought for about 1200 rubles. Usually such rarities can be found in flea markets throughout France or in specialized stores selling vintage fabrics and accessories.
Despite the abundance of lace types that exist all over the world, including in Russia, it is lace French that has for many centuries been a model of elegance and sophisticated style.