Collapse of the trachea in dogs
At present, small breeds of dogs have become very common. We are so used to these four-legged friends that some simply do not think themselves without them. For many people, especially lonely, a domestic pet replaces the family, and is not a simple decoration of the interior, so to speak.
It is important to remember that dogs are able to hurt like humans. Especially the diseases they have similar and have in most cases the same manifestations. Especially vulnerable to pathological processes in the body are small breeds of dogs, such as Spitz, York and Chihuahua.
And, perhaps, one of the most complex diseases can be called a collapse of the trachea. What is this disease?
Collapse of the trachea is a chronic disease. It is characterized by the inherited deformation of the named organ, leading to its narrowing. As mentioned above, this is in most cases affected by small thoroughbred dogs.
Why does the trachea collapse in dogs?
The pathological process, which will be discussed, is characterized by the fact that the lumen of the trachea is narrowed due to loss of elasticity of the cartilage rings. They become similar in appearance to the letter "C". Therefore, their rigidity disappears, of course, there is a narrowing. While the air passes through the trachea, its membrane acquires pathological mobility. That is, when your dog has a tracheal collapse in its thoracic part, then the membrane protrudes when inhaled. And during the exhalation it retracts, closing the space of the trachea. It is because of this that its obstruction is obtained.
If the collapse of the trachea in dogs begins in the cervical region, the picture turns out to be inverse: when inhaled, the membrane retracts, and when exhaled, it protrudes.
What happens when the membrane that has lost elasticity touches the mucosa? The dog has a cough. If the lumen narrows so strongly that the dog stops sucking air, then it becomes anxious, can not find a place for a quiet lying. Because of shortness of breath and frequent breathing, the animal feels even worse. In such a period the dog can be restless. The frequency of respiratory movements increases, then a closed cycle emerges.
With the development of the inflammatory process, the health of the dog is aggravated. When the trachea collapses in dogs, a lot of mucous secretion is produced, cough begins, strains appear in the tissues. All of the above leads to problems in the work of the trachea.
Which dogs are sick and why
For what reason this disease develops, it has not been studied enough. But it is known for certain that it can be primary - it appears in young dogs and is considered genetically conditioned, and secondary - arises as a complication in the disease of the respiratory system and the circulatory system. Pathology always develops quickly.
Collapse of the trachea in York and other small dogs can appear in any of the departments, and can move to the bronchial tree.
In the pathological process, in any case, the dorsal cartilaginous membrane and its rings are involved. When she loses elasticity, and the rings are in normal condition, the doctor makes a diagnosis - 1 and 2 degree of collapse. If the latter are struck, then everything is much more serious. The doctor diagnoses is a disease of 3 and 4 degrees.
Collapse of the trachea at the spitz can be determined by a significant thickening of the cartilaginous rings, which leads to loss of the inherent species. It is assumed that this is due to the lack of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in tissues.
Gradual thickening of the cartilage leads to a decrease in size. Consequently, the lumen of the trachea becomes much narrower. Genetically inherited deformation of the cartilage is considered to be the most important cause of pathology. It is because of it that the tracheal rings soften.
Often, the collapse of the trachea has no apparent manifestations. This state remains until the moment when one more problem appears.
Clinical manifestations of pathology
Almost always the course of the disease remains asymptomatic until specific factors lead to the development of a clinical syndrome.
Let us consider in more detail what constitutes the collapse of the trachea. Symptoms of it will be as follows:
- A sudden, sudden, tearing cough, which is amplified by pulling the leash, tension, and irritation of the trachea.
- With the progression of the disease, cough increases, additional symptoms are added (they can be read below).
- Difficulty breathing, the dog suffocates when loaded.
- Cyanosis of the mucous membranes.
- Possible fainting.
Some concomitant diseases:
- Overweight animal.
- Heart failure.
- Inflammatory processes in the upper respiratory tract.
Over time, the disease progresses, especially if there are manifestations of it.
Who has the collapse more often
It mostly occurs in small dogs. On the second place there are dogs of average size, such as pugs. At the same time, the frequency of diseases does not depend on the age of the animal. But a strong influence is exerted by various provoking factors and secondary diseases.
But still, as the disease develops for a long time, at a young age in dogs cough is extremely rare, and with age it is observed more often.
What systems are affected by the disease
Signs of the collapse of the trachea in the defeat of certain systems:
- Respiratory. Infection affects the upper respiratory tract and lengthening of the soft palate is observed. There is also a "fading" of breathing. Because of problems with cleaning the trachea, an inflammatory process occurs.
- Cardiovascular. With large problems with breathing, pulmonary hypertension is added.
- Nervous system. Because of a lack of oxygen and vasovagal reflexes, coughing produces syncopal conditions.
The collapse of the trachea in dogs, namely the cervical part of it, can be detected by palpation. Identify this disease is complicated.
The following studies are used for diagnosis:
- X-ray diagnostics. It makes it possible to recognize the collapse of the trachea, but in this method there is one difficulty. It consists that for recognition of this pathology a picture in a certain projection, for example at inspiration or exhalation is often required. It is rather difficult to explain this moment to an animal.
- Ultrasound. Using this method, it is possible to determine the collapse of the trachea in a dog in the cervical region. To do this, use a special high-frequency sensor. The method is used extremely rarely.
- Tracheoscopy. This method is considered the most informative. The essence of it is that an animal under general anesthesia is administered a device called an endoscope. He gives the doctor the opportunity to view the trachea along its entire length, as well as assess the mucosa. It happens that with this study, a small piece of tissue is extracted for the study, to determine the cellular changes, the causative agent of the disease, the sensitivity to antibiotics.
After carrying out the research it is possible to determine the degree of collapse:
- Normally the trachea has an elongated, rounded shape.
- The first degree. With it, the dorsal membrane sags, and the lumen of the trachea becomes smaller by a quarter. The rings are normal at the same time.
- The second degree. The shell sags heavily, the rings slightly flatten. The space of the vessels here is reduced in half.
- Third degree. The shell sags right up to the cartilaginous rings. Rings are flat. The space of the vessels is narrowed.
- Fourth degree. The dorsal membrane is located on the cartilaginous rings, which become flat and inverted, there is almost no clearance.
How to heal the collapse of the trachea in dogs
Treatment with medicaments of the aforementioned disease is selected strictly by the doctor, depending on the individual characteristics of the animal. With a mild form of the disease, before prescribing drugs, veterinarians recommend specific measures: combating obesity, using gloves instead of a collar, treating a secondary inflammatory focus in the airways.
Sometimes an animal needs to take medicine to suppress respiration. And in some situations, the collapse of the trachea has to be treated with hormonal drugs.
If a dog has bluish mucous membranes and it breathes heavily, it is urgent to take it to the veterinarian, because in this case it is necessary to urgently perform an operation to save the life of the pet.
Sometimes, when a dog has a tracheal collapse, surgery is necessary for the animal. But they do it only in the case when drug therapy does not give a result, but the life of the animal is under threat.
There are several options for surgical intervention in the collapse. Their meaning is that instead of the damaged part of the trachea insert an implant, which has all the necessary properties to ensure normal breathing of the dog.
On the one hand, this method is considered effective, and on the other hand it can lead to various complications, such as implant rejection, infection, laryngeal paralysis and necrosis of the trachea. If the pathology is not treated, then serious respiratory failure occurs.
Another variant of surgery is stenting. This is a self-expanding stent installation, which is a mesh made of rabinets, with lumens. It is inserted into the trachea to where there is a pathological constriction. Thanks to it, air permeability is maintained. To date, this option is considered the most effective.
If there is a tracheal collapse in the chihuahua, then the treatment is used antitussive drugs, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics and soothing drugs. The task pursued by doctors, first of all, is to cure completely or at least to slow the process of the development of the disease, in order to help the animal to live a habitual life.
Medicinal therapy: bronchodilators, hormonal and antitussives
Drug therapy is prescribed depending on the symptomatic manifestations, and bronchodilators are considered the main drugs in the treatment of these diseases, as they reduce spasm and intrathoracic pressure, increase the lumen of small vessels and rest the diaphragm. The drugs of this series include: "Aminophylline", "Terbutalin", "Albuterol", "Theophylline".
To antitussive here include narcotic analgesics, which have a sedative effect. This helps to control the cough center. "Butorphanol" is one of such drugs. The concentration of the drug is selected individually, depending on the course of the disease. Instead of Butorfanol, the drug hydrocadone is sometimes prescribed. But there is a significant drawback in these medicines - the turnover in Russia is very limited.
Hormonal therapy is used if the cough is very severe. It well removes the edema from the trachea and stops the signs of the disease. With long-term use, secondary infection is possible.
If this happens, then in this case, antibiotic therapy is the ideal treatment option. Select the drugs after the analysis of washings from the surface of the trachea.
Soothing drugs are prescribed to excitable dogs, to reduce coughing attacks. Usually veterinarians prescribe drugs "Diazepam" and "Acepromazin".
If an animal expresses a cough distress, then it is necessary to place it urgently in the clinic, where emergency measures will be taken.
To improve the condition of the dog, you also need to think through a diet to reduce body weight. It is also necessary to improve the air quality of the environment (try not to smoke nearby, ventilate the room, use a humidifier) and apply a lightweight glove instead of a collar.
What will happen to the dog after the operation?
Usually, when there is a tracheal collapse in dogs, the treatment is prescribed immediately. Often the only correct solution to this problem is surgery.
After it, you need a recovery treatment from a doctor. An essential condition is also the prevention of infections and chronic diseases.
Periodically it is required to do a stent check. For this, X-rays and endoscopy are performed.
The owner of the pet should realize that stenting does not cure the disease, it just helps to establish normal breathing. But the cough will remain, and the mucus will continue to accumulate, and the dog will cough it up.
It is especially important to establish normal breathing in the third to fourth stage of the pathological process. Otherwise, it will be impossible to do anything with the collapse.
Complications after stent placement
Complications after the named procedure can be the following:
- Allergy to metal.
- Fracture of the stent.
- Change his position.
- Persistent cough.
- The proliferation of the mucous membrane of the trachea.
To avoid complications, periodic inspections should not be missed. They will be able to help in a timely manner to identify complications and take measures to eliminate them.
So we figured out what the collapse of the trachea is. Treatment for this disease should start as soon as possible after the diagnosis. It is very important to help your pet in time.
Prognosis after treatment
Standard therapy promises a favorable prognosis after the course of drugs and the normal quality of life of your pet.
In the surgical variant, the efficacy of the method is 81-91%. Better, of course, it is suitable for the treatment of young dogs. If the dog is elderly, the effectiveness is reduced, although only slightly.
The very severity of the disease does not affect the prognosis. As in the fourth stage, in the case of correct treatment, very often doctors get a positive effect.