Gangrenous stomatitis in cats: causes, symptoms, treatment
Unfortunately, not every disease in pets has visible symptoms, and when the disease reaches its peak and irreversible processes in the body begin, the owners begin to notice that there is something wrong with their lesser brothers. This also applies to stomatitis in cats. Many believe that this is a human disease, but they can get sick and animals, and if you do not help the pet in time, the illness will take a startled form.
Description of the pathology
Stomatitis is a viral disease, accompanied by inflammation of the gums and mouth, which gives a small family member painful sensations. Often the weakened immune system of the pet leads to the appearance of an ailment, often the animal can even lose several teeth. In addition, stomatitis is the result of the vital activity of the immunodeficiency virus or the leukemia virus in cats, which are characterized by malignant growth of the hematopoietic tissue. This suggests that stomatitis is a fairly serious disease requiring urgent treatment. To avoid the transition of the disease to the acute stage, owners of furry pets should be aware of how to recognize the disease and treat it correctly.
Classification of stomatitis
There are several types of this disease:
- Gangrenous stomatitis in cats.
In the course of the disease, stomatitis can be acute and chronic, primary and secondary. The causes of the disease will be considered below.
Stomatitis in cats: symptoms
As a rule, this disease manifests itself quite brightly. Symptoms will depend on the inflammatory process, which, as we found out earlier, can be gangrenous, diphtheric, aphthous, catarrhal, vesicular and ulcerative.
In most cases, the development of stomatitis begins with catarrhal inflammation. In such cases, the pet raises salivation, thirst increases, the animal carefully chews food or refuses it altogether. When examining the oral cavity during this period, you can replace that the mucosa strongly reddened and a patch of gray appeared on it.
Stomatitis in cats is manifested by an unpleasant odor from the mouth, the appearance of which is caused by the decomposition of saliva, exfoliation of the epithelium and mucus.
We have already found out that catarrhal inflammation is the precursor of any kind of stomatitis. As a rule, the inflammatory process proceeds benignly. After the cause of the lesion has been eliminated, the mucous membrane will be restored and healed in a short time.
In case of delayed medical measures or in the treatment of improperly selected medications that have not had the desired effect, catarrhal inflammation can go on into more serious forms, up to the appearance of ulcers, aphthae and vesicles.
Stomatitis ulcerative in cats begins with a lesion of the gums: due to the formed jaw around the teeth the gum flows, acquiring a bright red, and sometimes cyanotic color. A disgusting smell comes from the mouth of the sick animal. Ulcerative stomatitis is characterized by bleeding gums when touched, for this reason the act of chewing becomes almost impossible, as a result of which the pet refuses to eat due to severe soreness. The disintegration of tissues entails the appearance of new foci of inflammation, up to the transition to the jawbone. Begins loosening of the teeth, and eventually their loss. The ulcerative lesion of the oral cavity is followed by gangrenous stomatitis in cats. If there is no treatment for sores in the mouth, the pet may die as a result of blood poisoning (sepsis).
Gangrenous stomatitis in cats is also manifested by the strongest disintegration of the mucous membrane and tissues of the oral cavity, the appearance of puffiness in the region of the lips, increased body temperature, increased submandibular lymph nodes and the oppressed state.
Causes of primary stomatitis
Many phenomena can cause stomatitis in cats. The causes of this illness can be as follows:
- Physical damage to the oral cavity. Hard meat and fish with a huge amount of bones, which your pet eats, can injure the gums. In microtrauma gets an infection, and begins stomatitis.
- The presence of fungi, most often the genus Candida. When bacteria enter the oral cavity, active multiplication and spread of harmful microbes, which are the causative agents of not only stomatitis, but also many dangerous ailments, begins.
- Chemical or thermal burn of the oral cavity. Such reasons are extremely rare, because furry pets are smart animals and do not eat poison or household chemicals. If, for some reason, it does happen, stomatitis in cats will manifest very quickly, because with a burn a favorable environment for the development of pathogens is created.
Causes of secondary stomatitis
Prerequisites for the occurrence of secondary stomatitis may include:
- Various diseases of gums and teeth, including tooth decay.
- An impaired metabolism, a deficiency in the animal's body of various vitamins. So, for example, with a lack of vitamin C, hemorrhagic scurvy develops, which leads to the appearance of stomatitis.
- Diseases of the digestive tract (diabetes, gastroenteritis).
Treatment of stomatitis
With a mild form of the disease, the use of immunostimulants - "Prednisolone" or "Cyclosporine", that can change the reaction of the immune system of the pet is acceptable. As a rule, remove the sick teeth to suppress stomatitis in cats. Treatment in this way by pet owners may seem too cruel, even barbaric, nevertheless the four-legged patient is relieved after the procedure. It is worth noting that when a toothache is affected by stomatitis, a pet can not use it for its intended purpose because of severe pain, so it is better to remove it, transfer the cat to liquid food (more about this - below) and for some time give the animal antibiotics and analgesic drugs.
After getting rid of the affected teeth, the inflammatory process decreases, while the residual inflammation sometimes remains. In such situations, for further treatment, the veterinarian may prescribe the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with painkillers.
Even after the completion of the full course of treatment, the cat needs to be shown to the doctor for a while to confirm proper wound healing and an adequate evaluation of the response to the procedure. Therefore, be ready to visit the veterinary clinic for the first 2-3 weeks after the beginning of treatment.
The recovery of the pet after stomatitis is indicated by the return of appetite, increased love for its owner and improvement of the general condition of the animal. A prolonged hunger strike, to which the pet has caused a painful sensation when eating, can lead to the appearance of excess weight. From the side, it may even seem that a starving animal simply jumps into food. Therefore, it is recommended after the treatment of stomatitis to monitor the nutrition of the cat to prevent obesity.
Stomatitis in cats: treatment at home
On the recommendation of a veterinarian, you can independently treat the affected mucous membrane of the oral cavity with a mild disinfectant solution: baking soda (1%), hydrogen peroxide (3%), a weak solution of potassium permanganate or furacilin. For irrigation of the mouth, you can use a small rubber pear or, more simply, a syringe.
Stomatitis ulcerative in cats is treated with Lugol's solution based on molecular iodine or an effective antiseptic "Methylene blue". With a large number of ulcers and with inflammation in the lymph nodes, therapy is recommended to continue in combination with antibiotics ("Oxytetracycline" or "Erythromycin"). An important role in the rapid recovery is given to the intake of vitamins. Gangrenous stomatitis in cats is also treated with restorative means.
For better recovery of the mucous membrane, it is recommended to lubricate the injured areas with sea-buckthorn oil or rose hips.
Feeding sick cats
For a speedy recovery the pet should be transferred to a liquid diet, especially if the diagnosis is "ulcerative stomatitis with granulations." Cats with this ailment experience a lot of unpleasant and painful sensations, so that dry food for a while will have to be taken away.For feeding a sick pet a meat broth, a dried soup, milk or porridge will do. With the diagnosis of "ulcerative stomatitis with granulations," cats often refuse food, so they will have to feed animals themselves. For convenience, you can use a small syringe.
Preventative measures consist of periodic examination of the oral cavity of the pet for the detection of sick teeth, timely detection of diseases of the digestive system, balanced feeding and the refusal of too hot food. Watch your pets, and let them be healthy!