Acquaintance with folklore occurs at the little man from the earliest childhood. From the first months of life, the baby hears the mother's tender voice, catches his intonation, learns to distinguish between moods. The most native person in the world sings baby lullabies, and through them the crumb feels the love and care with which Mom gently refers to him. Becoming older, the child learns by heart funny poems, remembers puzzles and counters. All this forms it as a person, helps to develop: training of memory, thinking, imagination, attention and speech takes place.
Children's folklore is an integral part of every little man's life. Without it, the child does not become a person, the development of the emotional sphere becomes impossible. After all, when a mother sings a lullaby to her baby, he reacts emotionally to her: calms down, feels comfort and satisfaction. Moving games develop the child's physical activity, help him to join the peer group, become a part of it. Riddles contribute to the development of intellectual abilities.
Genres of children's folklore are known to everyone: all sorts of puzzles, pestles, zalichki, counters, poteshki. Their knowledge often becomes a kind of "pass" to children's collective: children often tell each other different horror stories, teasers, counters. That is why a child who does not attend a kindergarten, and is brought up at home, may not know what children transmit to each other, and in the future it becomes difficult for him to adapt in peer environment. Folklore in kindergarten - its own, a special reality, necessary for the full growth and development of crumbs.
The lullaby is the first genre of folklore, with which the child acquaints, having come to this world. The kid still does not know how to speak, understand the surrounding reality, but by means of a lullaby song becomes involved in this world. Mother's voice sounds tender and gentle. She is tremblingly stroking her baby on the head.
Never afterwards will he experience such absolute love towards himself as in the early infancy, when he is loved not for some merit, but in himself, simply because he is. That's what children's folklore is capable of. Lullaby songs lull the baby, give a feeling of perfect peace, joy, happiness, comfort. The baby grows happy, often smiles, he dreams of rainbow dreams.
Examples of children's lullabies:
Lyuli, Lyuli's Lyuli
Gulen flew in,
Guli sat on the bed,
Guli began to coo,
Guli began to coo,
They began to pump Dasha,
They began to pump Dasha,
Dasha began to fall asleep.
Sleep, my little son, sleep
Lyuli, lyushenki, lyuli.
Soon the night will pass,
Red sun will rise.
Fresh dewdrops will fall,
In the field of blossoms will grow,
The spring garden will blossom,
A free bird will sing.
Lyuli, lyushenki, lyuli,
You, son, sleep soundly.
Yes zayushki zayushki,
Yes, the gillies flew in.
Guli began to roar,
Yes my sweet fell asleep.
The meaning of the word "pestushka" comes from "cherish", "educate". The mother, who sings to her infant of a little girl, performs various actions, shows where the baby has a leg with a pen, and in fact imperceptibly teaches him to understand the signals of the outside world. Feeling affectionate touch of the mother's hands, the child simultaneously receives the emotional component of the interaction, both spiritual and informational. The more mother pays attention to the baby, the better for his development, the sooner he will remember that the legs are needed to "stomp along the path," and the handles can be clapped loudly in the hands. Examples of children's folklore in the genre of pestles can be found in any children's books, targeting the age from several months to one and a half or two years.
Sweat is known as a genre where an elementary game situation is created and some simple activity is played. The goal of the nursery rhymes is to cheer, to get the child to respond.
For example, when playing with the baby in the "ladushki", then from the crumbs you need to perform simple actions - clapping. In addition, the child necessarily rises his mood, he laughs cheerfully. All these joyful emotions bring folklore. Kindergarten nursery rhymes can be used as entertainment and cognitive activities, for example, after a day's sleep, when you need to cheer up the kids. Sweat is designed for children from one and a half to three years.
Examples of children's nursery rhymes:
Goes, goes the cockerel,
He gets up early
And the other does not sleep,
On fences sits,
He was sleeping on the straw,
Early, got up early,
By water I went,
Young woman found,
Young woman - good
She gave her boots.
He did not have time to demolish them,
How others began to ask.
In the market of sposaranok
I bought a sheep's ram:
For lambs, for lambs
TEN poppy rings,
AND ONE kalach bought -
I have not forgotten myself!
And for my wife - sunflowers.
Danced the turnip with poppy seeds,
And parsley with parsnip,
Corn with garlic,
Our Tanya and the Cossack.
And the carrot did not want
Because I could not
Children's folklore is quite diverse. Many do not know that it can be attributed and mobile children's games. Dance courses, dances, and dances are all an integral part of Russian folk art. As a rule, games imply a large accumulation of children and are acceptable only in the children's collective. Look, watch the children, with what enthusiasm they play with each other!
Moving games often involve performing all kinds of sports exercises. Children willingly compete with each other in running, jumping in length and height, dancing. If you find the right approach to these activities and everything is well organized, the children's folklore in the genre of games becomes quite interesting and useful enterprise.
Teasers and jackets
What child has never heard verses like "Jade beef"? Hardly the kid enters the kindergarten, as he is attacked by a whole lot of different expressions and teasers. Often they are used by children to the place and out of place, only by chance. Nevertheless, all this is children's folklore. Teasers teach social communication, and they should not be banned, much less punished for this by children. If you forbid them to use poddevkami, children still come up with something of their own.
Strange as it may seem, these rhymes help to feel socially significant person. The child is much easier to communicate with peers, if he knows children's folklore. Teasers play the role of a kind of determinant, which makes it possible to understand how a child is a member of a collective, knows how to live in it and understands the laws of its existence. Thus, even the smallest child, being in unfamiliar groups, will quickly figure out what's what.
Russian children's folklore would not be so rich if there were no riddles among all its variety. What can be more interesting and unusual than guessing the rhymed (and sometimes not so) metaphorical expressions? Children are very fond of unusual and beautiful puzzles, dedicated to animals, nature, household objects. That's how entertaining children's folklore can be! Riddles are invented by children themselves, based on their own depictions of life and calling for help a rich imagination. It is worth saying that children very quickly memorize the texts of various allegorical descriptions and deftly insert them when necessary.Funny puzzles are especially popular with children: they are asking with particular interest such "tricky" questions to each other. Anyone who can not answer must guess two or three more such statements. This is the most intelligent kind of oral folk art, representing children's folklore. Riddles are common and on the playground among peers, they meet in class in kindergarten. First of all, these miniatures develop attention, memory, stimulate the imagination, the ability to think uniquely, creatively approach the solution of the problem. Examples of children's folklore is confirmed. Judge for yourself:
From it drink milk, tea, juice (mug).
This item helps people to agree when they can not see each other (phone).
This item is needed in order to display on the paper beautiful inscriptions (pencil, pen).
The puzzle helps to learn new things, learn something. For example:
She can not speak, but she tells a lot (the book).
What is the name of a person who likes to mess around? (lazy person).
Orange and ripe, all the guys in joy (orange).
The cloud is crying, and her tears water the earth (rain).
Hanging pear - you can not eat (lamp, chandelier, lamp).
Protects the house, does not let outsiders (dog).
As our friend has claws, who are he? (kitten)
Perhaps, this is the most interesting topic among junior schoolchildren and among teenagers. It is known that children often like to scare their peers with incredible mysterious stories, after which it is terrible to fall asleep.
It's very funny and fun. Someone tells a story, from which the hands grow cold and everything freezes inside, and everyone else listens and then "digests" what they've heard for a long time after the story ends. Children's folklore, manifested in the form of horror stories, enjoys incredible popularity. The most interesting thing is that children are always happy to listen to such stories, even if they cause fear in them.
Examples of children's horror stories:
1. The Forest Monster
In one forest appeared a terrible monster, which everyone was afraid of. Whether a mouse will accidentally slip through the woods or a little rabbit run through - a huge monster will necessarily eat it. The big trouble was that no one had ever seen a monster, and if he had met his nose to the nose, he had not returned alive. It came to the point that forest dwellers were afraid to stick their noses out of their houses - they were so scared by this monster. Are not you afraid that the monster will suddenly leave the forest and go to the city? Then you will be in danger! Guys, of course, are cowardly: who wants to fall into the clutches of a forest monster? From the house once again do not go out, look back on the road to school: suddenly after them the forest scoundrel sneaks? So you did not catch the monster, or maybe it was never there?
Once upon a time there was such a cat who liked to eat people. He was huge, just a giant size, and therefore could swallow a whole elephant, not that of a man. People, after hearing about this evil animal, began to be afraid to go out late at night and at night, since he attacked only at this time. Most often, such cases were observed on a full moon or shortly before its onset. At other times no one heard of the giant cat. It was not known and his whereabouts. The cat was searched by the police, it was hunted by various brave souls, but it was not possible to catch the "monster". It was even said that this devil himself turns to a cat to inflict evil. Can you imagine what it's like to walk the streets and not be sure that you will return home alive today? Mothers began to hide their children, husbands and fathers armed with pitchforks and once went into the forest. They wanted to stand up for the protection of their families, whom the cannibal was determined to destroy. For a long time they tried to find an abominable animal, but it was not easy. The thing is that the cannibal was extremely cunning and cleverly disguised himself: it was hardly approached, as it was made invisible. The men summoned him to battle, he hid himself and pretended that he was not here. He was called a coward and a scoundrel - the cat did not react at all. And one day it happened: an ordinary gray cat with a dark mark on his chest penetrated into one of the houses and took a piece of fat from the landlady. When he was caught, he suddenly disappeared into the air and disappeared. Probably, this was the cat-eater.
Many fans have and children's poems. Such wonderful children's authors, as Agniya Barto, Samuil Marshak, Kornei Chukovsky, Sergey Mikhalkov, are known to everyone. Their works are loved by the whole world and know by heart. Children easily remember funny rhyming lines that cause a smile and a good mood. Remembering poems trains the activity of the brain, develops memory, thinking, imagination, attention and speech. Small genres of children's folklore are especially loved by children.
Examples of children's verses:
It's Vovka, that's an eccentric!
He sits sullen,
To himself he says:
"Think, Vovka, think!"
Get into the attic
Or rushes, here's an eccentric,
To the far corner of the garden;
To himself he says:
"To think, it is necessary to think!"
He believes that from doom
He has a mind.
And Marusya, she is five years old,
Asks Vovka for advice
And say: in how many days
The mind becomes smarter?
Mom's asleep, she's tired ...
Well, I did not play!
I do not turn the top,
And I sat down and I sit.
Do not make noise of my toys,
Quietly the room is empty.
And on my mother's pillow
The ray is stealing golden.
And I said to the ray:
"I want to move, too!"
I would like a lot:
Read aloud and roll the ball,
I would sing a song,
I could have laughed,
Yes, I do not want anything!
But my mother is asleep, and I am silent.
The beam darted over the wall,
And then slid to me.
"Nothing," he whispered, as if. "
We'll sit in silence.
Children's songs often sound in the classroom in kindergarten. Various rhythmic movements are performed to the music: dances, games, etc. All this also belongs to the category« children's folklore» .
Songs are performed under a variety of music and on a wide variety of topics. In general, the theme of folk art prevails. Children's folklore is very popular. Russian songs are taught even with three-year-old children, because their texts are very easy to remember.
The scrolls help the children determine the order in different games. It is noticed that instead of just agreeing among themselves, who follows whom, the children for some reason prefer to be considered. As a counter, a short poem is usually presented, endowed with dynamism and of considerable interest. Perhaps, it is this approach that allows them sometimes to avoid unnecessary disputes and disagreements, which often lead to quarrels within the children's collective. These poems also represent children's folklore. The scrolls are remarkable in that they help determine the game in advance and do not waste time arguing, which is very important for maintaining the internal microclimate. In addition, these are just funny works of oral folk art, easily remembered, funny, kind. Thus, children's folklore is very useful. The scrolls are perfect for any games. And just try to discourage children from using this wonderful tool! Not only that in five minutes they all quarrel, so also spoil the mood of all who are currently in the vicinity.
Examples of children's counters:
Hush, mouse, cat on the roof,
and the kittens are even higher.
The cat went after the milk,
but the kittens are somersaulted.
The cat came without milk,
and kittens ha ha ha.
One, two, three, four, five,
We learned to count.
Well and further we do not know,
Maybe together we'll count?
Six - we love to eat sweets,
Seven - we help everyone,
Eight - we do not quit friends in distress.
Nine - we learn by five,
Ten - finished counting.
Conies, horses, horses, horses,
We sat on the balcony.
Tea was drunk, cups were beaten,
They spoke Turkish.
Lived-they were at the waistcoat
Three hinges and two cuffs.
If you count them together,
Three yes two, of course, five!
Only you know what the secret is?
The waistcoat does not have cuffs!
Thus, children's folklore is of great importance in the context of Russian oral folk art. To study this layer of culture is necessary, because children are great inventors and masters to invent funny mysterious stories. With the external similarity of products of creativity, they all turn out to be unique and unrepeatable in their essence.
Guys, studying all sorts of puzzles, counters, poems, songs, taking part in mobile and intellectual games, get a useful lesson for the future. Children's folklore develops creative thinking, teaches to analyze, reflect, treat with the greatest attention to the sounding word, love and protect nature. Folklorists specially travel to the villages and collect material for their practical research.
Finally, we add that the genres of children's folklore are not limited to the works listed in this article. There are also jokes, verdicts, all kinds of chants and orals. All these trends only emphasize the beauty and diversity of oral folk art.