What is heredity? Genetics and its types
Almost every person knows what heredity is. From a scientific point of view, heredity is the ability of an organism to transmit features of development and signs to its offspring. Each child adopts from his parents certain traits of character and features of appearance, this is the answer to the question of what heredity is. In addition, the body is able to adopt both the type of metabolism, and diseases, and makings. This is due to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - a genetic material.
What is heredity, even many children know, but that not everyone knows that the science of heredity is genetics.
If we talk about human genetics, it is divided into the following types:
- Population. Engaged in the study of genetic processes in groups of people that occur under certain marriages, under the influence of mutation, selection, isolation or population migration. She also studies the pattern of the formation of the human genotype.
- Biochemical. He is engaged in the study of specific, genetically controlled biochemical syntheses, while using the most modern methods of biochemistry (electrophoresis, analyzes, chromatography, etc.).
- Cytogenetics. He is studying the material carriers of heredity, that is, he studies chromosomes, their functions and structure.
- Immunogenetics. It is distinguished by the establishment of many immunological signs. Basically, these are antigens of leukocytes and red blood cells, protein groups of blood serum.
Today, the following types of heredity are distinguished:
1. Nuclear. It is associated with the transfer of traits (hereditary), which are located in the chromosomes of the nucleus. Her second name is chromosomal.
Criteria of types of nuclear heredity:
- inheritance of autosomal recessive is rare (not in every generation). If there is this sign, both parents can not avoid it. It can also be found in the children of those parents who do not have such signs;
- autosomal dominant is found in every generation. If there is a sign, at least one of the parents will have the child too;
- the golandric (linked to the Y - chromosome) is only a masculine trait and occurs frequently. Transmitted through the male line;
- recessive with X - chromosome is rare. Women can only be if the father has this sign;
- dominant with X - chromosome occurs in women 2 times more often.
2. Cytoplasmic. It is detected by comparing the results of various reciprocal crosses.
In the same situation, people will behave differently. This fact is attributed to heredity. But although it plays an important role in human life and development, the environment is also of great importance. The final formation of personality depends on the psychological and physical education of a person. Heredity and the environment are always connected. The more favorable the environment, the more chances to raise a decent person from the child, even if the genetic heredity leaves much to be desired. Now, having received the answer to the question: "What is heredity?", You can raise a beautiful person.