The educational task is put in each educational institution. Even in the kindergarten. After all, upbringing is a complex process, in which attention is focused on the transfer of knowledge, ways of thinking, various norms from the older generation to the younger. The process has different meanings. But in the end, each child, as he grows, must receive certain skills, moral values, moral attitudes that will allow him to orient in life in the future.
From the point of view of pedagogy
The modern educational system in the pedagogical sense focuses attention on the specially organized and purposeful impact on the collective by the teachers. It is necessary in order to form the given qualities and achieve specific objectives. Of course, upbringing as a process causes various arguments. Someone believes that it is not necessary to teach children excessively, because the environment will still influence them. Others, on the contrary, believe that without education a person is unlikely to become a person, a respected member of society. And it is right. The main educational task of any educational process is to reveal the propensities and talents of a person and develop them in accordance with his individual characteristics.
It must be said that it is necessary to develop certain qualities in accordance with the inclinations inherent in nature. Accordingly, the educational goal and educational task should be selected so that they correspond to the level of development of the child. And touch the zone of its nearest development. Good upbringing should go ahead of development.
The educational process is a whole complex of activities aimed at the harmonious development of a particular person. First of all, parents are engaged in them. But such institutions as kindergartens and schools also play an important role in achieving a common goal. Education can be of different directions. We will consider each of them separately. For example, mental education is understood as the development of the personality, which is revealed in the educational process from a moral, emotional and physical point of view. It is very important for the development of personal qualities. Teaching and educational tasks within the mental direction are aimed at ensuring that children fulfill certain tasks:
- learned a certain amount of scientific knowledge;
- learned to form their own opinion and worldview;
- developed mental powers, abilities, cognitive interests;
- realized the need for constant replenishment of their knowledge.
All these goals are set by secondary schools of general education. Emphasis is placed on the fact that it is intellectual education that is the first step towards mastering the whole system of knowledge of the basic sciences.
It is no less important. The modern educational system pays close attention to the physical aspect of development. The main tasks in this case are somewhat different. But without them it is impossible to imagine any educational system. Physical education presupposes an emphasis on strengthening the health and proper development of the child, increasing his capacity for work, and developing natural motor qualities.
The goal of this useful and necessary process is to optimize the physical development of a person. And also to improve its qualities, and so that they are in harmony with the spiritual and moral characteristics of the individual. Educational work in the DOW or schools is aimed, among other things, at forming vital motor skills and skills, and facilitating the acquisition of basic scientific and practical knowledge.
It begins to be formed from childhood - in the family, the school - and involves the instilling in the child of elementary knowledge of labor duties. Any activity is an important means of developing the psyche, moral qualities of the individual. Therefore, for schoolchildren, it must be a natural need. Certain educational goals are set in the general education school:
- to form in children a positive attitude toward work, which is represented as the highest value in life;
- develop cognitive interest in knowledge, needs in creative work;
- to bring up high moral qualities, diligence, duty and responsibility;
- armed students with different skills and skills.
That is, labor education refers to those aspects of the educational process that call for attention to activity.
The educational goals of this process are aimed at the formation of moral concepts, feelings and beliefs that meet the established norms in society. They are understood as universal values. They meet the norms of morality, they were worked out by people in the course of the natural historical development of society. Teachers say that moral education is a purposeful formation of the child's moral image, his habits in behavior, communication, and thinking. Accordingly, the task of this process is aimed at the formation of sincere feelings, moral image, own position, but necessarily within the framework of existing moral values. Such a person in the future will certainly become a worthy citizen of his country.
Separate attention deserves such aspect of education, as patriotic feelings. A child should respect his Motherland, its nature, gifts, cultural values from childhood. Both in the gardens and in schools, various military and patriotic activities are actively carried out, which help the children to realize the moral value of belonging to their land. Within their framework, conditions are being prepared for creating a system of civic-patriotic education. What is it?
Many teachers note that civil-patriotic education is a priority direction of the modern educational system. The task of this process is the formation of a person who is able to perform socially justified acts. He must be able to relate himself to the established system of social relations and see his place in it, fruitfully contacting other people.
Military-patriotic goals of education are aimed at ensuring that the child grew up as a worthy citizen, a patriot of the country that respects its laws. And to achieve this goal, a number of tasks are performed:
- Scientific-based management and organizational activities are carried out. It is aimed at creating optimal conditions for civic-patriotic education of schoolchildren.
- In the minds and feelings of students affirmations of universal values, views, beliefs are affirmed.
- An effective system of upbringing is being created. Thanks to it, optimal conditions are provided for the development of basic civil qualities in children.
Features of modern principles of education
How to raise an educated child? This question is asked by all parents. It should be noted that everyone has their own ideas about this process, its features and principles. But still there are the starting points, on the basis of which the modern educational method is being formed. The system of upbringing today is based on several principles:
- The public focus of the process.
- Education should be closely related to life and work.
- It must be based on humanism.
- The personal approach in the process plays an important role.
- All impacts must be uniform.
The educational task in this case is thought out in such a way that the changing needs of society are taken into account in combination with the existing philosophical and psychological-pedagogical concepts. Let's talk about them in more detail.
What are the concepts?
At the heart of modern pedagogical practice are two concepts of upbringing - pragmatic and humanistic. The first was approved in the US in the XX century and remains so far. Her motto is education for survival. That is, the task of the school is to grow, first of all, an effective worker and a responsible citizen. More supporters of the humanistic concept. According to her, it is necessary to help the person realize all the abilities and talents inherent in her. But there are more modern and relevant concepts of upbringing:
- Orientation to collectivism. The main thing in this concept is the idea of joint, group creativity and learning, when upbringing, as a process, presupposes the management of personality development in a collective.
- Social concept. It is very interesting and informative. In this case, upbringing is understood as a social process, which is formed on the basis of certain influences on the activity and behavior of a person. Its task is to create an effective environment for the growth and development of a particular individual.
- Personality-oriented cultural concept. According to her, at the heart of the picture of the world lies primarily man. And education should be conducted in accordance with cultural and national bases. Personality in this concept is, first of all, a person of cultural and moral principles.
- Self-organization of upbringing. According to this concept, the process is understood to be a creative solution to life's problems. That is, a person chooses how they can be solved.
What is the essence?
The educational process is a whole system in which various factors play a role. And it is he who underlies modern pedagogical activity in educational institutions. But not limited to them. After all, the educational process involves the consideration of all environmental factors that can affect a person in the course of his becoming.
The goals and tasks of educational work are aimed at resolving the main contradictions between the various directions of the student. And do it so that his personality is formed harmoniously and holistically. And the participants of the process should do everything possible to regulate all possible influences on the child. Self-education is a whole combination of methods and methods that influence the personality.
The main thing is the focus of actions
We note at once that educational work is always conducted in a complex manner. That is, the impact is not only directly on the child. It is more important to assess the environment surrounding it, which is what educators should do in the educational process. As a consequence, such educational and educational tasks are put:
- identification of the individual characteristics of the baby, its development, environment, interests;
- programming of educational influences;
- development and implementation of methods and forms aimed at individual work with the child;
- evaluation of the effectiveness of the educational impact.
Within the framework of communication of the minor with the environment, a favorable emotional atmosphere is formed. Children are involved in various activities. Another group of goals is aimed at adjusting the influence of different subjects of the child's social relations. Within the framework of this process, social assistance can be provided to the family. The kid is actively involved in a dialogue with the pedagogical team. In this case, the planning of educational work is built in such a way that in the first place was the organizational activity.
The educational process consists of several components - targeted, meaningful, operational, activity and analytical-productive. Let's talk about them in more detail:
- The target component is the definition of the goals of the educational process. And they are put after the needs and interests of the child, the tendencies of social development, are necessarily taken into account.
- The content component is the fundamental direction on which the whole process is worked out. Its content focuses on the formation of qualities that are the main for a particular person from the point of view of his relationship with the world around him.
- The operational and activity component is the pedagogical means that the teacher implements in his work for the purpose of educational work. In this aspect, training is the active interaction of process subjects with objects.
- The analytical-productive component assumes an assessment of the effectiveness of the upbringing process.
Regularities of education
How to raise an educated child? To answer this question, you need to understand how the process is built, what to do to make it really effective. The essence of upbringing is understandable if one studies its laws, that is, external and internal links affecting the success of achieving the pedagogical goals. To make a child truly educated, both parents and educators should remember about certain regularities of the process:
- Personal interests of the child must necessarily be in harmony with the public. The tasks of the pedagogical process are also important. The main thing is that the baby should be active, and for this he must have motivation.
- Education and upbringing affect the overall human culture in combination. That is, we develop if we get knowledge, expand our horizons and scope of our activities.
- Educational influences on the child must be holistic. They can not contradict pedagogical requirements.
Thus, the educational process is a holistic concept that allows to form integrity and harmony in a person. But do not forget that the child is the main value in the system of human relations. At the same time, the main norm here is humanity. And that upbringing was successful, it is important that the child is involved in this or that activity voluntarily, trusted teachers and parents. And I understood that in any case he is protected, and his interests are taken into account. Influence of the parents' love, respect for the baby, ability to listen and understand him also has a huge influence.