In what a fairy tale gusli-samoudy
The folk fantasy surprisingly anticipated the future. In folklore, sometimes there are fairy-tale subjects: gusli-samogudy, tablecloth-samobranka and similar "gadgets". Two Russian folk tales in the treatment of AN Afanasyev contain information about the harp. One is called.
The fairy tale has the following plot: the poor, father and son Vanka, raised a turnip. The son went to harvest and noticed the thief, the boy. He was already dragging two sacks of turnip from the field. The child asked to help and assured that his grandfather will pay. Immediately the boy advised not to agree to gold and ask for gusli-samogudy.
Vanka did so, received a gusli in exchange for the fact that his house is the most expensive. But he miscalculated: it turns out that the grandfather did not mean property, but his father. When the son returned, he was already dead. After Vanka left the house in the city. Pigs were grazing near the city. He played in the harp, and the pigs danced.
The daughter of the local sovereign sent to buy one pig. Vanka said that he would answer only in person. When she came up, they conspired: the girl showed her legs to her knees in exchange for a pig. On the foot was a birthmark. The Emperor announced that he would extradite a daughter for someone who would recognize the sign of his daughter. Vanka came, answered questions and became the son-in-law of the tsar.
The plot of the second fairy tale is in the adventures of one of the three brothers, the fool. His father did not want to give the inheritance, knowing about the impracticality of his son. But his fool shamed him, and he gave him a hundred rubles equal to the clever ones. Brothers bought bulls, and a fool - a cat with a dog. All three went to the world to look for a better share.
A fool came to the river, and there was nothing to pay for the transportation. A ship is sailing along the river. The fool shouted to the owner to take his goods for half a share and threw a cat on the deck. Sailing to a country where there are no cats, and there are many rats, the captain sold it for six barrels of gold and returned the fool to three by agreement.
The fool gave out two barrels to the poor, and bought the incense on the third and burned it in the field as a thanks to God. God sent an angel to ask what he needed. The fool found it difficult to answer. Angel advised him to go ask the plowmen that they worked nearby. When asked what he needed, two plowmen reasonably noticed that they had no idea. For this they were killed by a fool. The third, seeing such a turn of events, advised me to wish a good wife. The fool did so.
The angel told him to catch a roach with a gold ring and indicated the place where it would float. The fool caught a fish, after learning the angel threw himself over him and hit the ground. The fish turned into a girl. They slept in the field. When the fool fell asleep, his wife summoned magically twelve workers, and they built a palace in the morning.
The king of that land commanded a fool to build a bridge from the chambers to the palace. My wife helped to do this. Then the king sent a fool to the next world to see his father, who had hidden his money. My wife helped me with this task. Then the king gives the task to bring gusli-samogudy. The wife gives him a towel with hand embroidery and points the way.
He reached the forest hut where the old woman lived. It turned out that the herring makes her son. When the master returned, he told the fool not to sleep, and he himself became a gusli to get along. Sleep almost overpowered the fool, but he washed and took out a towel. The old woman recognized her daughter's hand in embroidery. Walked, then the fool went home.
On the road he meets a robber, and a fool forces him to dance to his harp. He exchanges for a baton, but then regrets and orders a club to take away the harp. Arriving home, he orders a cudgel to kill the king and himself sits on the throne.
Belarusian fairy tale "Three is the son of Nameless"
The poor had a son. They could not circle it, because the priest demanded payment. Children began to call him Nameless. A boy grew up and went for happiness. So he came to a forest hut where three old men lived. They adopted him, named Trem-son and educated. When he became an adult, they gave a magic horse and taught how to get the feather of the Firebird. Then they advised us to cure them of the royal horses.
He succeeded. The king appointed him chief groom. After some time the king wanted the Firebird and sent him for her. The horse, donated by the three named fathers, helped to catch the Firebird. The king again sends him on his way. This time to learn from the Sun about the cause of the eclipse.
Again the horse helped, sent to the mother of the Sun. On the way, Trem promised to help the otter, the crow and the whale-fish. Three told the mother of the Sun, and she helped him. When the Sun returned, she hid Trem in a chest and asked everything about her son: it turned out that the eclipse was due to Nastasya-beauty. The sun wanted to burn out the ocean, where she lives, but could not. He also gave solutions to otter issues with a crow and a whale fish.
Reported to the Third Tsar the cause of the eclipse, but the king ordered Nastasya-beauty to bring him. The horse helps to lure the girl with ribbons and bring him to the king. Now the girl demands her beauty. The king gives an order to get beauty from the bottom of the sea. The horse also helps in this. The commission is also performed by the otter, crows and the whale fish.
But the girl requires gusli-samogudy, which give her fun. For this she passes a handkerchief - wipe her eyes to stay awake. The horse directs Trema to Volk-Volkovich, who makes them. He forbade sleeping while working. The young man takes out his handkerchief, and the Wolf recognizes the embroidery of his sister.
On the way back, the young man meets a robber with a magic truncheon, a sorcerer with a gold casket and a merchant with a tablecloth-samoboranka. He first changes with them, and then orders the cudgel to take away the harp. Carpenters, having danced, give him a magic hatchet.
Approaching the royal city, he builds a palace. Opening the casket, causes the army. The tablecloth feeds everyone. The king arrived, accompanied by Nastasya-beauty. She suddenly cuts off Trem's head. Then she cooks his body in milk, and he comes to life as a written handsome man. The king wishes the same, and Nastasya also chop off his head. But he throws them to the dogs.
Three marries her and becomes king.
The Mariyskaya Tale
Let's get acquainted with the work of Mari folklore called "Gusli-Samogudy".
Hunter Echan wants to marry. Disobeying his mother, he kills a duck with golden feathers. At the bazaar he is met by the rich man Luzhavuy and sends for a precious stone, and takes the duck with deception. Echan returns to his mother, and she sends him to the old woman. She gives him a glomerulus, which leads to the lake. From the bottom Echan takes out the chest in which the precious stone is stored, and brings Luzhavaya.
But he again sends him for the right thing. This time it's gusli-samoudy. The bride of Echana gives him a towel. Again the old woman helps, directs the hunter to the master. The master does not allow you to sleep while setting up the harp. In order not to fall asleep, Echan takes out a towel. The master is delighted with beautiful embroidery and gives Echinu a goose. The hunter calls him to the wedding, promises and he will find a bride who beautifully embroider.
While Echan was absent, Luzhavuy made his bride his concubine. Echan makes him dance to exhaustion under the magical harp. He promises to release his bride and give money for a duck and precious stone. At the wedding there is a master. He found a wife, an embroiderer.
In all fairy tales, there is something that unites them. This requirement is to stay awake while fabulous gusli-samoudy are being made. Violation is punishable by death. In all cases, a handkerchief (towel) is rescued, which is recognized by embroidery and makes indulgence. In the Mari fairy tale - for the extraordinary beauty of the pattern on the towel.
Methods of obtaining magic items are also the same. Exchange and subsequent orders of a club to take away the exchanged thing. The palace built by a miracle, with the help of an ax, or with the help of a wife. In one tale the assistant is a horse, in the other the wife.
All this reveals the origins of the tale, leading to the laws of its origin. Apparently, gusli played a significant role in the old days.
The role of psaltery in Russia
The ancient heroes played the harp. Warriors wore them on hikes. Funeral rituals accompanied the singing of the guslar. With their help they turned to the gods. This instrument was persecuted, many were burned for pagan songs. But to eradicate to the end did not succeed.
In what fairy tale gusli-samoudy play a more significant role, it is difficult to say. Rather, they are an expression of an old dream. As Nastasya-beauty, people consider them the cause of fun. It always was not enough in the old days.
Now you can listen to music freely, and not only in the performance of the psaltery. Once it seemed like a fairy tale. Let's appreciate this opportunity!