Types and styles of education in the family
Quite often, people who have children turn to psychologists for help. Moms and dads ask specialists where their favorite children might have unwanted qualities, bad behavior. The most important role in the formation of personality is played by upbringing. From its style and type, chosen by parents, the character of children, their further life depends. What methods and forms of upbringing are applied? In this matter it is worth investigating, because the answer to it will be useful to know all parents.
What is upbringing and what styles exist?
The word "education" appeared in people's speeches for a very long time. Evidence of this is the Slavic texts dated to 1056. It was in them that the concept was first discovered. In those days, the word "upbringing" was given such importance as "nurturing", "nurturing", and a little later it was used to mean "instructing".
In the future, this concept was given many different interpretations by various specialists. If we analyze them, then we can say that education is:
- the formation of a personality that will be useful to society and which can live in it, will not avoid other people, will not close in itself;
- interaction of educators and educated;
- learning process.
Parents, raising their children, often do not think about organizing this process. They act as intuition dictates, life experience. Simply put, mothers and dads raise their sons and daughters as they do. Thus, each family adheres to a certain style of upbringing. Under this term, specialists understand characteristic patterns of parents' relationship to their child.
There are many classifications of styles of upbringing. One of them was proposed by Diana Baumrind. This American psychologist identified the following styles of parenting in the family:
Later this classification was supplemented. Eleanor McCoby and John Martin singled out another style of parenting in the children's family. It was called indifferent. In some sources, such terms as "hypoopeak", "indifferent style" are used to designate this model. Below, the styles of upbringing, the characteristics of each of them, are examined in detail.
Authoritarian style of family education
Some parents keep their children in strictness, apply rigid methods and forms of upbringing. They give instructions to their children and are waiting for their fulfillment. In such families, strict rules and requirements apply. Children should do everything, do not wrangle. With misconduct and misconduct, caprices, parents punish their children, do not take into account their opinions, do not ask for any explanations. This style of family education is called authoritarian.
In this model, the independence of children is very much limited. Parents who adhere to this style of upbringing, think that their child will grow obedient, executive, responsible and serious. However, the final result is completely unexpected for moms and dads:
- Active and strong in nature, children begin to show themselves, usually in adolescence. They rebel, show aggression, quarrel with their parents, dream about freedom and independence and that's why they often run away from their parents' home.
- Unconfident children obey their parents, fear them, fear punishment. In the future, such people are not independent, timid, withdrawn and morose.
- Some children, growing up, take an example from their parents - they create families similar to those in which they grew up themselves, keep both wives and children in severity.
Authoritative style in family upbringing
This model experts in some sources denote by the terms "democratic style of education", "cooperation", since it is the most favorable for the formation of a harmonious personality. This style of education is based on a warm relationship and a fairly high level of control. Parents are always open to communication, they want to discuss and solve all the problems with their children. Moms and dads encourage the independence of sons and daughters, but in some cases may indicate what needs to be done. Children listen to the elders, they know the word "must".
Thanks to the authoritative style of upbringing, children become socially adapted. They are not afraid to communicate with other people, they are able to find a common language. An authoritative style of upbringing allows you to grow up self-confident and self-confident personalities who have high self-esteem and are capable of self-control.
An authoritative style is an ideal model of upbringing. However, an exceptional commitment to it is still undesirable. For the child at an early age, authoritarianism, which comes from the parents, is necessary and useful. For example, moms and dads should point the baby at the wrong behavior and demand from him compliance with any social norms and rules.
Liberal model of relations
Liberal (conniving) style of upbringing is observed in those families where parents are very indulgent. They communicate with their children, absolutely everything allows them, they do not set any prohibitions, they want to show unconditional love for their sons and daughters.
Children who are brought up in families with a liberal model of relations have the following features:
- are often aggressive, impulsive;
- they aspire in nothing to deny themselves;
- like to show off;
- do not like physical and mental labor;
- demonstrate self-confidence bordering on rudeness;
- conflict with other people who do not indulge them.
Very often the inability of parents to control their child leads to the fact that he falls into antisocial groups. Sometimes the liberal style of parenting leads to good results. Of some children who know freedom and independence since childhood, active, determined and creative people grow up (the way a particular child will become, depends on the nature of his nature, laid by nature).
Indifferent style of raising a child in the family
In this model, such parties as indifferent parents and embittered children stand out. Moms and dads do not pay attention to their sons and daughters, treat them coldly, do not show concern, caress and love, are only concerned with their own problems. Children are not limited in any way. They do not know of any prohibitions. They are not inculcated with such concepts as "good", "compassion", therefore children do not show sympathy neither to animals, nor to other people.
Some parents not only show their indifference, but also hostility. Children in such families feel not necessary. They have deviant behavior with destructive impulses.
Classification of types of family education according to Eidemiller and Justiskis
An important role in the formation of personality is played by the type of family upbringing. This is a characteristic of the value orientations and attitudes of parents, the emotional attitude to the child. E. G. Eidemiller and V. V. Yustiskis created a classification of relations in which several basic types characterizing the education of boys and girls were identified:
- Pretending hyperprotection. All the attention of the family is directed to the child. Parents tend to maximally satisfy all of his needs and moods, fulfill his desires and fulfill his dreams.
- Dominant hyperprotection. The child is in the spotlight. Parents constantly monitor him. The independence of the child is limited, because Mom and Dad periodically put him any prohibitions and restrictions.
- Cruel treatment. The family has a huge number of requirements. Their child must obey unquestioningly. Following disobedience, whims, failures and bad behavior, cruel punishments follow.
- Neglect. In this type of family education, the child is left to himself. Mom and Dad do not care about him, are not interested in him, do not control his actions.
- Increased moral responsibility. Parents do not pay much attention to the child. However, they impose high moral demands on him.
- Emotional rejection. Education can be carried out by the type of "Cinderella". Parents are hostile and unkind to the child. They do not give caress, love and warmth. At the same time, they are very picky to their child, they demand from him observance of order, subordination to family traditions.
Classification of types of education according to Garbuzov
VI Garbuzov noted the decisive role of educational influences in the formation of the characteristics of the child's character. In this case, the specialist singled out 3 types of raising children in the family:
- Type A. Parents are not interested in the individual characteristics of the child. They do not take them into account, do not seek to develop them. Upbringing of this type is inherent in strict control, imposing the only correct behavior on the child.
- Type B. This variant of upbringing is characterized by the anxious-hypothetical concept of parents about the state of the child's health and social status, the expectation of success in learning and future work.
- Type B. Parents, all relatives pay attention to the child. He is the idol of the family. All his needs and desires are sometimes met to the detriment of family members and other people.
Swiss researchers, led by A. Clemence, identified the following styles of raising children in the family:
- Directive. With this style in the family, all decisions are made by parents. The task of the child is to take them, to fulfill all the requirements.
- Partisipative. A child can decide something for himself. However, there are several general rules in the family. The child is obliged to fulfill them. Otherwise, parents apply punishment.
- Delegating. The child makes his own decisions. Parents do not impose their points of view on him. They do not pay much attention to him until his behavior leads to serious problems.
Disharmonious and harmonious education
All considered styles of upbringing in the family and types can be combined into 2 groups. This disharmonious and harmonious upbringing. For each group, there are some features that are listed below in the table.
Disharmonious and harmonious education