Som African: farming and breeding
Surely all seen at the grocery store fish counters marble catfish. Very much like this kind of fish, since the meat is quite juicy, soft and delicious. But not everyone knows that this fish is quite simple, you can grow your own or on a small fish farm. In this article we will discuss the rules for breeding and raising fish in the farm, but the same way you can grow catfish for personal consumption.
In General, "marble catfish" is not the proper name of this fish. In fact, its name – claravis African catfish (lat. Clarias gariepinus). These fish are native to Africa. Even in reservoirs of the Sahara, you can catch Nile clarias. This is absolutely normal com: his long body stained brown has a light abdomen. The distinctive feature of all catfish long whiskers. The klarius mustache as much as 4 pairs. This type of fish is able to process oxygen from the air using nadzhabernoy breathing organ. With this purpose, the catfish comes to the surface and saturated with air. It is this feature that made the klarius so comfortable in the breeding. There is no need to provide it with fresh water. Moreover, one cubic meter of water you can put about 300 pounds of live fish. Of course, this is only possible by regular removal of feces.
For the large number of fish, you must either purchase a special pool, or have access to large enough bodies of water. One of the features of the method is the possibility of further application of warm water from the incubators, which leads to better results.
For the most part the parent stock is fish that grow faster. African catfish can participate in breeding at 1.5 – 2 years. The female reaches sexual maturity by 6 months, but best results are obtained at the age of 2 years.
Usually during the breeding parent stock are kept in separate tanks in which water is heated to 23-25 degrees Celsius. Food manufacturers need to be carefully balanced. The protein content in this aft shall be not less than 38%. Per day manufacturers have to consume food no less than 1.5 % of its weight.
The optimal number of producers in one ribopyranose – 100 individuals.
Reproduction under control
Most often for sexual products high quality manufacturers stimulate injections of hormones. Prior to the introduction of the hormone you need to distribute the females in different aquariums or pools.
2-3 days before the procedure spawning you need to put the fish on a starvation diet. A single injection is used the pituitary gland, in the calculation of 4.5 mg per kilogram of body weight of the fish.
The African catfish breeding which decided to produce by injection, and is responsive to "Ovopel". It is administered once using 1 granule per kg of fish. This drug is used in the form of physiological compounds. Males until spawning is kept in one pond.
For successful growing calves need to the spawn to hold the female in water with a temperature of about 26 degrees. Full ovulation occurs within 12 h after injection of the pituitary gland.
The African catfish is a pretty fish, so to get the calf females need to be put down. This is done by injecting anesthetic. Most often used "Propiscin" .
Get the eggs from each female separately. Thus it is considered admissible, if the mass of eggs is at least 20% by weight of the individual. After the procedure, the female was placed in the solution КМпО4на a period of about hours. The drug should be diluted at the rate of 0.5 g per 100 liters of water.
ROE for the most part taken from the gonads of male fish. The efficiency of sperm stored up to 24 hours at a temperature of – 4 degrees.
The resulting caviar is divided into three parts. The eggs of different females should not mix. Each portion should weigh approximately 300 gr. Then take 3 ml of milk. The efficiency will be higher if milt will be from different males – it stimulates the process of fertilization. Thus, it is better to take 1 ml from 3 males. Milt and eggs dipped in water and well stirred for about five minutes.
After carried out the insemination, the eggs should be well washed. To do this, use a solution of tannin. It take about 10 grams per 10 liters of water. To fully obeseity eggs, thoroughly rinse it in a solution of no more than 30 seconds.
After the eggs oberkleen, begins its incubation in trays in the framework or in a special apparatus. Frame for incubation should be covered with netting with a mesh of about 0.5 mm. the Eggs are distributed on the grid layer of 1 egg. When the water temperature is not higher than 27 degrees is the appearance of larvae. From the time of fertilization until the larvae takes about 25 hours. The water in the trays is consumed at a rate of 10 liters per minute.
The exposure of larvae
Larvae should be kept in trays or small pools until resorption of yolk sacks. On the first two days to put the larva in a pool, then move in the trays.
African clarify som-larva must be kept in the dark. Three days later after the final resorption of yolk sack need to remove the film, covered with mold, from the bottom of the tray. If the larvae become active – it means the yolk SAC completely dissolved.
The stages of growing larvae
The first stage lasts about 3 weeks. His end comes when breathing African catfish begins with oxygen from the atmosphere.
Landing larvae in this period is about 100 pieces per liter of water. The water is oxygenated, the pool needs to be adjusted its metabolism. Feed the larvae need decapsulating Artemia or Tubifex. After a week in a starter feed ration is administered. Lighting should be dim or twilight.
Larvae are cannibals, so the end of the first phase in a natural way the content of the fingerlings decreased to 25-50 pieces per liter of water. Sort of future fish need in the third week. Such interference might enrage maggots, so sorting should be done very carefully. Then fish for an hour leave in the antibiotic solution.
The second stage lasts about 5 weeks. Usually the cycle begins with the filling of the pool well sorted larvae. Their number should be approx. 300-500 mg. Larvae should be sorted in 2 parts in size.
Most often, the fry of the African catfish sits considering the specific weight of fish and volume of the pool. Daily intake divided into 3 meals, should be about 5% by weight of the fish.
The next stage is about two months. Fish during this period should weigh 130-200 gr. The rate of growth of fry depends on the density of planting. For pools with a volume of 5 thousand liters of planting density equal to 2.5 pieces per liter. The water temperature is in the range of 27 degrees.
During the third stage, the main feed for the African catfish floating. The feeding process is automated or manual. The water should be replaced every 2 hours.
The farming of African catfish to marketable species takes about 50 days from the date of completion of the third phase of the growing larvae. The average fish weight by the end of the whole process may take up to 2-pounds. During this stage the African catfish is in the pools with a capacity of about 10 cubic centimeters. To two liters of water can be planted not more than 3 fishes. This method gives you about 400 kilograms of live fish in each cube of water.
Often feed the fish at this stage, the floating feed. The amount of food is about 3% of the weight of the fish. You need to feed her about 5 times a day.
Excellent results can be obtained when using feeders "Reflex". One feeder of this type is used for 10 squares area of the basin.
Hand feeding ensures a more even distribution of food. This leads to a differentiation of the weight of the fish. The African catfish breeding which takes place in a controlled way, shows a substantial gain in a relatively short period of time.
After completion of all stages of fish sorted. Showed the best pace of weight gain and growth of animals left for further breeding, the rest of the fish shipped for sale. Pools and pans after the fish washed and cleaned before the next generation. Before the new use is treated with antiseptic solution.
Given the relatively high average water temperature, to breed the African catfish is only possible in the South of Russia. Currently breeding catfish doing in the Temryuk district of Krasnodar region.