Sister is a popular family character
The word "sister" literally means "own woman" or "her own woman". Linguistic scholars assume that it originated from the Indo-European "sve-sor", spread across all linguistic groups and is by now as commonly used as the word "mama".
The common definition is that the sister is the child of the same parents from the point of view of the same child. However, depending on the degree of kinship or property, distinguish:
- Single-uterine (common mother) and half-naked (common father) sisters. Often they are called incomplete.
- Consolidated sisters, that is, not having blood ties, but considered relatives because of the marriage of parents.
- Cousins are the children of a brother or sister of one of the parents. In the European tradition - cousins.
- Zolovok or sister-in-law is a social property, denoting, respectively, the sister of a husband or wife.
- The age division is the younger and older sister. As a rule, such a distribution implies a certain position and responsibilities (the elder - the main, the more responsible, the younger - the spoiled).
Female representatives also lead in the groups of babies born - the number of girls is 67% of all multiple pregnancies. From a medical point of view, they are all twins, but in daily circulation they are called twins, or twins. It is noteworthy that in relation to boys, appeals in such a caressing form are less characteristic.
In addition to kinship, the sister is also a status reference, meaning a profession (medical personnel), a social position (nun) or belonging to a religious group (sect).
Appeals and abbreviations
The word "sister" has a similar sound in many languages. In particular, in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Serbian languages, it is similar in pronunciation to the familiar Russian ear. In others, the word is only pronounced a little differently. For example, this:
- English - sister.
- French - sœur.
- Swedish - syster.
- German - Schwester.
- Polish - siostra.
- Uzbek - apa.
Asia is characterized by the absence of the word "sister" as a separate morpheme. In Chinese, Korean and Japanese languages, for each "kind" of such relatives there is a separate designation. In particular, in Korea, the elder sister is called "nuna", the younger one is "onni", in Japanese the eldest of the children will be called "one" ("one-san"), and the youngest - "imo".
In Russian, the word has a set of derivatives that have one meaning, which is due to the high flexibility of the language. A Russian sister can also be called "sister", "sister", "sister", "sister" and each of these names will be decent, relevant to use under certain circumstances.
Family ties and the theme of incest
Incest is an intimate relationship between close blood relatives on a descending (vertical) or horizontal line, including cousins. This phenomenon is prohibited by law and actively condemned by society, but nevertheless interest in sexual relations between brothers and sisters is not weakening.
In a close, by historical standards, the past incest of this kind was quite common. Everyone knows that the Egyptian pharaohs married their sisters (native and half-blooded) in order to preserve the purity of the line, and the dynasties of Plantagenets, Capetians, Lancaster, Habsburgs at one time were married almost exclusively with cousins. In the latter relations between relatives happened so often that they led to complete degeneration.
During the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, in Europe, among aristocracy and the bourgeoisie, about 70% fell on marriages between cousins. And about any perversions and speech was not. At the then existing system of inheritance, the cousin-sister-sister was the only way to preserve the fortune and to inherit the title.
In today's world, marriage between cousins is prohibited in most countries. However, in the Middle East, its rates, on the contrary, are growing at a dangerous rate. In Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, marriages of brothers with cousins and second cousins reach 30% of the total, and in some regions the figure is even higher.
Legislation of the Russian Federation
According to Art. 14 of the Family Code of the Russian Federation, the sister is a close relative related to other children by blood relationship, at least for one of the parents. The status of a sister or brother allows:
- Notify them of detention by law enforcement authorities within 12 hours.
- The right not to testify against them.
- The right at any time to receive at work an administrative leave for their funeral.
- The right to exemption from property tax received as a gift.
The norms of Art. 93 of the Family Code of the Russian Federation also oblige sisters and brothers to keep other minor family members if parents can not do it for objective reasons (death, being in detention, absence). They are also indirect heirs in the event of death. The queue of relatives (full and half-parent) sisters comes after parents, spouses and children, and the queue of cousins - in the absence of other relatives, including their own parents.
Fiction and Cinematography
The theme of relations between sisters and other children is one of the most popular in the creative world and does not depend on time and country. The number of works where the line of brotherly-sister relations is not only touched in passing, but is one of the most important, is quite large. Such novels as "Pride and Prejudice" (Charlotte Bronte), "Little Women" (Louise Olcott), "Three Sisters" (Anton Chekhov), "In the Shelter" (Shirley Jackson), "Flowers in the Attic "(Virginia Andrews) and many others. Even the symbol of Russian poetry - Alexander Pushkin - tells of sisters and conflict between the ages through the centuries.
Film companies of different countries also did not ignore the sisters. In addition to the screen versions of books on this subject, there are also original stories - "Cruel Games" (USA, 1999), Caligula (Italy, 1979), "Hard Children" (France, 1950), "Brotherhood of the Wolf" (France , 2001), "My sister, my love" (Japan, 2007), "Bed for brother and sister" (Sweden, 1965).
Among the modern series most known for the "Game of Thrones", "Hemlock Grove". Among the anime about the sister and brother also there are tapes. For example, it is worth looking at the "Asylum of the Angel", "Bound by the Sky," "I Love My Sister" and "Sister's Misconception".
In the world there are a lot of famous people who work in a related tandem. You can meet them in almost all areas of life, but especially a lot of them in the film industry. Everyone knows Mary-Kate and Ashley Walson, famous for the films about twins ("Me and my shadow", "Vacations in Paris"), Monica is the younger sister of the famous Penelope Cruz. The list can be continued for a long time. In sports, the twins Victoria and Valentina Semerenko are widely known, who dedicated their lives to biathlon, and in the literature literature the most famous still remain the sisters Bronte - Anne, Charlotte and Emilia.