Family as a social group and social institution
A family is a social group within which there is a certain connection. It can be blood relationship, marriage or adoption. All its members have a common budget, life, and responsibility for each other. There are also social relations between them, which lead to biological ties, norms of law, responsibility, etc. The family is the most important social institution. Many experts are worried about this topic, so they are diligently engaged in its research. Further in the article we will consider in more detail this definition, we will learn the functions and goals designated by the state before the "cell of society". Below is also a classification and description of the main types. Let us also consider the main elements of the family and the role of the social group in society.
Divorces. Statistical data
The family is a small social group, interconnected by many factors, for example, by marriage. But, unfortunately, in our time, according to statistics, the number of divorces is steadily growing, and Russia in such a list has taken a leading place recently. Previously, it was always overtaken by the United States. Although, of course, many new alliances are being created. Every year in our country 2 million marriages are registered.
The Needs of Humanity
The family as a social group and social institution arose long ago, before religion, the army, the state. Another American Abraham Maslow, who diligently studied psychology, created a model that shows what exactly a person desires in the first place. The concept of the family as a social group includes:
1. Sexual and physiological needs.
2. Confidence in the safety of existence.
3. Communication with other people.
4. The need to be recognized as a person in society.
Due to the aggregate of these needs, the whole structure of the family is formed. There are several of its categories. In terms of the number of children, families are divided into childless, small children and having many children. There is a classification and according to how long the couple live together: newlyweds, middle-aged, elderly couple. Still there is a rural and urban, authoritarian and egalitarian family (by the one who is the main in the family).
The family as the most important social institution creates the history of all mankind. After all, in ancient times there were groups of people who had something in common. By the way, there are still some primitive societies, for example, among the peoples of the North or the tribes of Central Africa, where the institution of marriage is almost the only stably functioning one. There are no specific laws, the police and the court are not responsible. But any such unions, however, have the signs of a family as a social group. For example, a nuclear family, which includes a husband, wife and their children. If there are still relatives - grandmother, grandfather, grandchildren, cousins, etc. - then it will be an extended family. But, unfortunately, at the current time, most people do not particularly support communication with other relatives, so a nuclear family is a social institution that is more common today. Which is very bad, because in any life circumstances you could get help from relatives, if you do not forget that they exist.
Forms of marriage
The concept of the family as a social group includes a traditional view. It all starts with a relationship between a man and a woman, which grow into something more. And it does not matter whether there are children with this union or not, they can connect their destinies together. Subsequently, it may dissolve as a result of the divorce or death of one of the spouses. Such a family, in which the child is brought up by one parent, is called incomplete in the sociological literature. There is also such a thing as exogamy. It is that the choice of partner is limited to a specific group of people. After all, for example, it is forbidden to marry according to legal and moral standards for one's own brother - a native or a cousin. Some societies forbid the choice of a future spouse within their clan, tribe. There is also such that an alliance between individuals of different races, different strata of society is impossible. More popular in the west is monogamy, which includes marriage between two people of the opposite sex. Although there are peoples in which preference is given to polygamy (an alliance where more than one person is married). There are even non-standard relations, when several girls and several men join the family. And it happens that a woman has several husbands. This phenomenon is called polyandry. But mostly from non-standard marriages polygamy is most popular. Thus, the family as the most important social institution must comply with the laws adopted there, where it was formed.
The prevalence of divorces, their causes
Sociologists have noticed that since 1970, the number of divorces has increased, and now they are so common that, according to statistics, half of Russians who form families will certainly divorce after some time. By the way, it is proved that when the country is experiencing an economic recession, the number of divorces increases, and when the economy is calm, then there are fewer. Probably, if a person feels the financial stability that the industrial society gives him, then other factors come back to normal, he feels satisfaction. The family as a social group and social institution directly depends on society, its instability. Many countries try to prevent divorces, making them practically impossible, or giving privileges to one of the spouses. For example, in Italy before the twentieth century. the task of dissolving the marriage was impracticable. Only then the government took pity on those whose unions turned out to be unsuccessful, allowed divorces. But in most countries, if the husband leaves his wife, he must ensure her life at the level at which she was during the marriage. In this case, the man loses his financial state. In Russia, people share property. If the children stay with their mother (mostly this is the case), then the father must provide them financially. There are many different nuances in the legislation of each country.
In one country or another, a social institution - a family (whose functions are supported by marriage) - acquires special traits, its own nature. It is scientifically proven that not every being, but only people, can conceive a child in the period desirable for them. After all, many animals multiply only at a certain time, and a person does not have such restrictions, on any day, the closeness between a woman and a man can come true. Another difference is that a newborn baby is in a helpless condition for a long time. He needs care and care, which the mother can give, and the father, in turn, must provide it economically, namely, to give everything necessary for him: food, clothing, etc. Even in the ancient centuries, when society was just beginning to develop , the mother took care of the baby, cooked food, took care of her relatives. In this case, the father, in turn, provided them with protection and food. The man has always been a hunter, an earner, doing hard work. People of the opposite sex were in contact, the offspring developed, and children appeared. Nobody fulfilled the tasks of another, it was considered wrong, because everyone had their own duties. This is inherent in nature in the human body and is transmitted genetically from generation to generation.
Advantage of the heir
With regard to agriculture and production, it can be said that the family here performs a very important role. Due to continuity, material resources appeared. All property was transferred to the heir, so the parents were confident in the state of the future of their children, between whom subsequently distributed and redistributed property, status, privileges. This, you might say, replacing some people in a certain place by others, and this chain will never stop. The family is the main social institution that performs this function, determines the advantages of generations, the role of the father and mother. After all, everything that parents had was passed on to the children. This provided not only the confidence of the heirs in the future, but also the continuation of one or another production. And this is important for the whole society, because without a mechanism that will always replace some people with others, it will not exist. On the other hand, for example, some important production for the city will not be lost, because the heir will continue to work on it, when his father will no longer be able to manage the business or die.
A child gets a stable position when born in a legal family. Everything that the parents have will be passed on to him as an inheritance, but not only that, it also applies to social status, religion, etc. None of this will be lost, everything will go to the heir. In general, human relations are built in such a way that one can know the relatives of a particular person, her condition, her status. The family is a social institution that shows the position of a person in society, largely due to his origin. Although in the modern world, one can gain some status through his own efforts. For example, a father, working in a firm in an important position, can not pass it on to his son. In order for the latter to receive it, it must be achieved by him himself. But many things have survived and passed: property (after all, you can transfer the inheritance), the social status of the individual, etc. Each country dictates its own rules, therefore different nations have different laws that apply to marriage, divorce, heredity. But in general, the family is a social institution of society, which has its own rules and nuances.
The importance of proper parenting
Since childhood, the mother teaches the child the lessons of social life, he is learning from examples of parents to live on. It is very important to ensure a good emotional life for your offspring, because in this case there is a direct link: how to bring him up in the family, so he will be in life. Of course, the character of a person depends on genes, but a great contribution to it is made by family education. Much depends on the feelings, the mood that the father or mother gives. It is close people who must prevent the emergence of aggressive qualities in a developing teenager, give him a sense of security, share his emotions. Since the birth of a person is formed as an individual, because with each minute he learns something new, feels something that he had never felt before. All this leaves a mark on the future character, on individuality. They say that, for example, what kind of relationship between the father and mother will be observed by their son, so in the future he will treat women, what feelings parents will give him, such and he to others.
Suicide due to a relationship that did not work out
E. Durkheim investigated the statistical data on suicides. And it was noticed that those who are alone or divorced are more likely to commit suicide than married ones, as well as those who do not have children, even though they are married. So, the happier the couple, the more family members, the less likely to attempt suicide. According to statistics, 30% of murders are committed within the family. Sometimes even a social system can disrupt the balance of the social unit.
How to keep the relationship?
Many spouses make up a kind of plan. The family as a social group in this case receives certain tasks, goals. Together there are ways to achieve them. Spouses should save their hearth, provide their children a good upbringing and living conditions, from the very childhood to guide the development of the child in the right direction. These foundations of the family structure, laid down even in the old generations, still exist. The problems of the family as a social institution should be considered by all relatives. Together, they must preserve and pass on to their heirs the notion of the foundations of the structure of society that so influence the preservation of the family, regardless of political regimes. A family is an intermediary between a person and society. It is she who helps a person find himself in this world, realize his qualities, talents, gives him protection, helps to stand out from the crowd, to be individual. This is the main task of the family. And if she does not do all this, then she will not fulfill her functions. A person who does not have a family, with each passing year, will increasingly feel his own inferiority. In this case, it may appear and develop some negative qualities. These are very important nuances, which should be paid attention when raising a child. After all, the formation of his personality begins with the first days.
Development of the individuality of each person
The family as a social group and social institution plays an important role. After all, it is she who educates an individual who can live in society. On the other hand, it protects from external factors, supports in a difficult moment. For anyone in the world so a person does not experience, does not worry, as for his relative. And, without hesitation, helps close people. It is in the family that you can find comfort, sympathy, consolation, protection. When this institution disintegrates, the person loses the support that he had before.
The family is a small social group, but it is very important for the whole society. With changes in politics and economy, its structures and functions also change. The appearance of a modernized, urbanized and industrial society exerted a tremendous influence on the modern cell of society. The level of mobility of its members began to grow. In other words, it is already commonplace for situations when one of the members of a family has to move to another city, where he was offered work or promotion, leaving his relatives. And since most members of modern society give preference to material well-being, success, career growth, the proposed options are not already considered unacceptable for them. And if this happens, then, from a social point of view, in this case, the internal relations of family members also change, because the social status of one of them, his financial position, his views, aspirations, changes. This all leads to the fact that the ties that bind relatives gradually become weak, and then disappear altogether.
At the present time, especially for urban residents, it is increasingly difficult to maintain a link between generations. By and large, the family structure in modern society is extremely weakened. Basically, all the care of its members is aimed only at caring for children, their treatment and education. The rest of the relatives - especially the elderly - are often left out. The misunderstandings and material instability arising on this ground contribute to the destruction of relations between a man and a woman, the emergence of quarrels, and often even lead to parting. The problems of the spiritual closeness of the spouses are important, but the primary issues that must be solved with all members of the family. The family as a social group and social institution will function and achieve success only when each of its members understands that its achievements, its merits influence it, and the origin of the individual, his social position plays a very small role. Now personal merit has an undeniable advantage over obligations. After all, with the help of them a person decides where to live, what to do. Unfortunately, the nuclear system is more vulnerable and dependent on external factors (illnesses, deaths, monetary losses) than the patriarchal one, in which everyone supports each other, helps, and if some problem occurs, all together can solve it. Today, all actions and thoughts of our state and society are aimed at creating conditions for the harmonious development of the family in Russia, for preserving its spiritual value, socio-cultural nature, and communication between relatives.