The family is a small cell of modern society. The values of this institution are necessary for a person, because without them life becomes inferior, meager. In order to properly name all the numerous members of a large family, you need to understand the relationship.
We bring to your attention material that will help to understand who is a close relative, and who does not belong to such. If earlier all kinship ties were very appreciated and studied, then in modern society, these knowledge have lost a little. We will try to put everything in order.
Why do you need to know the types of kinship?
In the near future, families were large, and several generations of distant and close relatives could live in the same house at once. People of one kind always had a close relationship. They always had similar values, concerns, needs. Previously, this expression "looks like an uncle, like three drops of water," implied that the nephew and uncle are the next of kin. Today, family values gradually go to the background, and now most people know the relationship only to blood brothers and sisters, not remembering the cousins and the cousins.
How are links divided?
It is accepted to subdivide all family ties into three main groups:
- kinship by blood, that is, close relatives;
- surnamed - for marriage;
Related links: history pages
Let us analyze a complex picture of the cunning intertwining of various family ties and turn to the dictionary.
Let's start with a concept like parents. Under them it is customary to understand mother and father. Papa (in colloquial style: daddy, papa, tenka, dad, pimp, papulya, dad, papan, batnya) is a man with respect to his own children. Mother (mother, mother, mother, mother, mother, mother) is a woman in relation to the same kids.
Children are a term that denotes daughters and sons. The son (son, son, son, son, sonul) is a boy, a young man, a man in relation to his own parents. Daughter (daughter, daughter, daughter, daughter, daughter, daughter) - a girl, a girl, a woman with respect to her mother and father.
Extramarital children (bastards, illegitimate, fatherless, bezbatezhnye, bastards) are those whose parents were not married before they were born. Bastards in the Middle Ages in Western Europe called illegitimate children of public figures, such as the Duke, King. Recently, this expression has acquired a vulgar and offensive value - bastards. In the 19-20 centuries, those children that were born before marriage, it was customary to call it a knockout. And those born of members of the royal (royal) family and people of non-royal origin were called morganatic. Such offsprings did not have the right to the succession, they did not recognize the presence of royal blood.
Family Relations Through the Generation
A relationship through the generation helps to understand when men and women will have a new status: grandparents.
Grandfather (grandfather, grandfather, grandfather, grandfather, grandfather) is a man in relation to the children of his daughter or son, father of mother or father, grandmother's husband.
Grandmother (grandmother, grandmother, woman, ba, granny) - a woman with regard to the children of her daughter or son, as well as his grandfather's wife. A grandson is a boy, a boy, a man with respect to his own grandparents, in addition, he is the son of a niece or nephew. Granddaughter (or granddaughter) - a girl, a girl, a woman with respect to a grandparent, she may be the daughter of a niece or nephew.
And here are the relatives, whose list is transferred after several generations. Great-grandfather (great-grandfather) is considered a man in relation to the children of a granddaughter or grandson, this is the father of a grandmother or grandfather.
A great-grandmother (grandmother) refers to a woman with respect to the children of her granddaughter or grandson, this is the grandmother of any parent (mother or father).
Great-grandson will be a boy, a young man, a man in relation to his great-grandmother and great-grandfather, this is the son of a granddaughter or grandson. The great-granddaughter consider a girl, a girl, a woman with respect to her great-grandmother and great-grandfather, the granddaughter of her son or daughter.
Family relationship after several generations
Ancestor is considered the oldest predecessor of this genus, in addition, any compatriot from all previous generations. The ancestor is the father of great-great-grandmother or great-great-grandfather, most often any distant ancestor of your kind. Dandelion is the mother of great-great-grandmother or great-great-grandfather, a distant ancestor.
The forefather is the forefather, that is, the ancestor is the most famous representative of the genus, and the genealogy was derived from it. The forefather (mother-mother, ancestor) is the first legendary representative of the genus, with whom the genealogy began.
A proband (deposit) is the person from whom the pedigree is recorded. A descendant (offspring) is a person who comes from an ancestor by birth. Descendants are representatives of future generations. It is also interesting to note that there are such concepts in the genealogy as (pra) queen, (pra) kababka, (pra) ked, (pra) kvnuk, by which mean ancestors and descendants through k + 1 generation.
Blood relatives in Russian genealogy are considered to be direct by kinship only in the male line. The principle "from father to son" is descending and perfectly illustrates the irrelevance in a certain period of time of the status of belonging of men to the nobility, as it was not passed through the women's (maternal) line. All descendants and ancestors on the female (mother) side are not directly related, that is, it becomes the last and only direct descendant in their line. There is such a thing as "misfire of the family," implying the absence of sons in the family. As examples of awareness of direct kinship, it is possible to consider the rules of succession.
What is an indirect blood relationship?
If the brother and sister have one father and mother, then they are considered bloody, full-blooded. A brother is called a boy, a boy, a man with respect to other children, if their parents are the same. The elder are considered to be a boy in the family, having the maximum age in relation to other kids of the same father and mother. The younger one will be a boy, whose age is minimal in comparison with the others. The main condition - the same parents.
A married is called a brother who was born before marriage, but is recognized by parents as his child. A sister is a girl, a girl, a woman in relation to other children (children) who were born by one parent. The older one will be a girl (girl, woman), whose age is greater than that of other offspring. Here also works the condition that all children are born by the same parents. The younger one calls the girl (girl, woman) born in the family of the latter. The sister who was married in the old days was called the sister, who was born before the marriage between the parents, that is, before the official wedding, but they did not abandon the baby.
The next of kin are twins. Who is it called? They are considered to be the children of one mother, who was born several babies in one pregnancy. There are identical twins who have one sex, and also an amazing external similarity. And there are raznoyaytsevye, which can be of different sex. In some cases, twins understand only identical (single-sibling) sisters or brothers, and the rabbits are considered triplets, twins, given their numbers.
Sibs (siblings) is a term used to refer to sisters and brothers (in the relationship between them) that come from single parents, while not being twins. Incomplete siblings are offspring with one common parent (mum or dad). There is a division of infertile in several groups:
- one-blooded (half-blooded), that is, originating from different mothers, but from one pope;
- one-uterine (one-uterine), that is, originating from different popes and one mother.
There is a kinship between sisters and brothers. By summary, they mean those whose parents are legally married, but do not have common children. Perhaps, such a variant of clan relations, that is, such kinds of relatives as a step sister and brother, from the point of view of social, legal status, is considered a blood relationship. It is assumed that the immediate family relations between the genera are regarded as peculiar until their parents have generic children, that is, their one-tiny and half-blooded relatives. Through the offspring, they will all be blood, since the direct descendants of the summary, as well as the descendants of their half-brother, half-siblings and brothers will be such by definition, they are related to the parents (after a generation, and directly with the sisters and brothers themselves, and also between themselves.
The close relatives we have considered are only a small list of those complex interlaces that are determined by the genetic characteristics of each genus.
Let's analyze the relationship between cousins. So, if we consider children in families that were created by a brother and sister, then they will be cousins to each other. Cousin is a boy (boy, man) with respect to the children of his aunt or uncle, so they call his aunt's or uncle's son.
Earlier, a cousin of his father, that is, his uncle's son, was called strychich, and his mother - uychich. Cousin calls a girl, a girl, a woman with respect to aunt's or uncle's children, this is the daughter of her aunt or uncle. In ancient times, she was affectionately called a stitch.
Second cousin and four-cousin
Let's try to figure out who is a relative of the second cousin. Children of cousins and brothers in relation to each other are called second cousins. This is the name of the grandson of a sister or brother, as well as a cousin's nephew, a mother or father, the son of a cousin's aunt or uncle. A second cousin in the genealogy is the granddaughter of the sister or brother of a grandmother or grandfather, she is also considered the daughter of a cousin's aunt or uncle.
Not everyone knows their family ties. Who is who in the fourth generation? Brother and sister of common parents, cousins with common grandparents, second cousins with common great-grandmother and great-grandfather ... It is possible to continue, but the essence of ties is obvious. From the fourth generation, they try to indicate the total number of "knees" existing between relatives. Such a concept as a cousin (cousin), in practice, has much greater meaning than a simple designation of a cousin or brother. During the Middle Ages, in the monarchical houses of Europe, in addition to the modern name on the lateral line, in the case of belonging to the same generation, this concept was also used for lateral relatives of the last generation, if the age was approximately equal.
A similar fact is shown in M. Druon's historical novel "The Damned Kings", where the "cousin" Count Robert Artois is called the quaternary sister - the English queen Isabella. Also this word can often be found in foreign films, although in our time in modern domestic society it does not always get accustomed, since it is simply a sister that is more acceptable to the unconscious people (often the word "cousin" is simply omitted). However, both options are correct, therefore it is not necessary to condemn those who ignore the word "cousin".
The table of kinship links shows a chain between different generations, but what do relatives call next generations? Ui - so used to be called mother's brother. Strya is the sister of the father, and the stry is his brother. Vuina is the sister of Mom. Currently, such designations are not found, they have irrevocably left the Russian language, which in the distant past was much richer. In the olden days a nephew of a brother, brother's son, was called a brother. Perhaps, it is the oversaturation of words for the designation of their kin and led to a significant simplification.
Today, some concepts are clearly not used for their intended purpose, since few people in our day are dealing with kinship ties, their Old Russian names. Sestrich - so in the old days they called their nephew by the sister. A trawler's name was his brother's niece or his brother's daughter. Stryj small - such name was in the last centuries at the cousin uncle, that is the boy (the young man, the man) concerning children of the cousin or the brother.
How were the children of blood relatives called, as well as cousins and parents' brothers? Dzerich - that's how they called their nephew aunt, and daughters called their niece. A second cousin is a girl with respect to the children of a second cousin or second cousin, as well as a second cousin of mother or father.
Parents (relatives through generations), for example sisters and brothers of the grandfather and grandmother, are an old giant, before they called their great-uncle grandfather (elder brother). There is also an old fellow, that is, a great-uncle (younger brother). Great aunt is a great-aunt, that is, a mother or father's aunt, as well as her grandfather's sister. An impressive niece is called a cousin or granddaughter of a brother or sister. The grand-nephew is a great-aunt or daughter of a niece, as well as the granddaughter of a sister or brother. Want to know who is a close relative? Take advantage of the materials that we have selected for you.
After the marriage, another line of kinship and a new status appears: the spouse or the spouse. The second is a man with respect to a woman with whom he has contracted a legal marriage. The spouse is the woman who married this man. My father's father is called a father-in-law, my mother is a mother-in-law. The mother of the wife for her husband is a mother-in-law, and the father is a father-in-law. Swat is the father of the young in relation to his parents young, and vice versa, the father of the young in relation to the parents is young. They refer to the mother of each spouse in relation to the parents of the second member of the family union. The brother of the spouse is the brother-in-law (schwager). His sister is called his sister's sister. Shurin (Schwager) is the brother of his wife. The son of the brother-in-law will be a Shurik. The sister of the wife is the sister-in-law. Primak is a son-in-law who was adopted as a mother-in-law by a mother-in-law or father-in-law, who leads a common household with them. The son-in-law is the husband of the sister, daughter. A son (son-in-law) considers his son's parents to be his wife. The wife of the brother is yatrovka. It's customary to call the husband of the wife's sister, that is, they will be men married to sisters. Bratanikha is called the wife of a cousin.
Unrelated relations play an important role in the life of any person. A sweetheart is a girl in whom a man is in love. Hahalem she (it is over, most often not she, and all those around her who somehow try to harass her, sometimes using this word as humiliation or mockery, even though she is not) calls that man who gives her attention and cares . The groom is a young man who has intentions to marry a girl who is "running around", inviting to a cafe or another fashionable movie show, getting tickets for which turns out to be very difficult. A bride is a girl who is going to marry her young man.
Planted - those persons who during the wedding act as parents of the bride or groom.
A lover is a man who lives with a woman, has a close relationship with her, not officially registered.
A lover is called a married man who has a close relationship with a woman, immoral in terms of law. In principle, in terms of morality, such relations are wrong. A lover is a woman who has an intimate relationship with a married man, which is also not entirely correct.
Agree, it is not so easy to independently understand the relationship with close and distant relatives, especially if you go deeper into the intricacies a few generations back - into a distant past that is inaccessible to our direct view. But then there was no Internet to keep in touch between relatives, people could keep in their memory so many statuses that it is difficult to imagine today. Let after reading this article and you will have some set of knowledge about close and distant relatives. It will not be used by you every day, however, it is possible for a variety to appeal to close people a little differently, showing their love for the knowledge of traditions. Particularly pleasant will be such an appeal to the people of the older generation, as they know the traditions even better and will appreciate your aspiration by giving a sweet and generous smile.