Prenatal and postnatal periods of child development
The desire to have a child must be understood by both parents. It is useful for a future mother not only to know about the upcoming changes in the body, but also to read as much information as possible about the prenatal and postnatal periods of the baby's development.
The prenatal period, or fetal development, which lasts an average of 280 days (40 weeks), is divided into three stages:
- First stage. This is the first week of development from the moment of fertilization to implantation into the mucous membrane of the embryo of the uterus.
- Embryonic stage. Within the next seven weeks, all systems and organs are being formed. The main food for the baby are substances delivered with the blood of the mother. In the third week, blood vessels, pro-nephros (preference) and heart are laid. After seven days, the formation of the liver, stomach, lung, pancreas and endocrine glands, as well as the primary kidney, the rudiments of the legs and hands, is completed. In the fifth week, the embryo continues to develop lungs and bronchi, forming the rectum, bladder. After two weeks there is an intensive growth of the head, you can see the ears and eyes, fingers on the legs and hands.
- Fruitful stage. Starting from the ninth week of pregnancy and until the moment of birth, the child is gaining weight and increasing in size, the maturation and development of systems and organs continues.
Concerts of classical music
Until recently, the idea of considering the age of the child from conception seemed completely insane, but today scientists are no longer so skeptical.
The results of the research show that the baby can be trained in the womb. The best way to stimulate is to play the embryo classical music.
Almost immediately after conception, the brain begins to develop crumbs, and by the end of the fifth month, the number of brain cells is formed, which will remain unchanged throughout the postnatal period. With intrauterine development, cells are enlarged by intercellular connections.
Stimulation of cells through classical music increases the likelihood of developing intelligence. In addition, in the postnatal period, these children are easier to learn and even begin to speak a few months earlier than peers.
Postnatal period is the time from birth to death. In pediatrics it is customary to distinguish the following stages of postnatal development:
2. From the second month to the year - infancy.
3. The second year of life - later infancy.
4. From two to six years - the younger children's age (preschool period).
5. 6-10 years (girls) and 6-12 years (boys) - the school period.
During the first 28 days of the baby's life there are cardinal changes. We will tell you in detail about the features of the newborn period:
- Physiological weight loss. Pediatricians consider the norm to be a loss in weight to 10% in the first five days.
- Immediately after birth, babies have a search, sucking, motor and grasping reflex.
- During the first month of life, the muscles are in a tonus, and the body automatically assumes the fetal position. Hypertonus, as a rule, disappears in two to three months.
- The amount of feces directly depends on the frequency of feeding. The first two days from the intestine is allocated meconium.
- Most of the time newborns spend in a dream - they can sleep up to 22 hours a day.
The separation of mother and child during childbirth certainly affects the psychological state of the baby in the early postnatal period. However, while maintaining a permanent contact, this stage passes without serious consequences.
As for food, WHO and pediatricians all over the world consider breast milk to be an ideal diet, especially for newborns. The number and frequency of feeding is best left to the discretion of the baby.
From month to year
Imagine what a difficult task the child faces in the first year of life. First, the baby learns to hold his head, then crawl and sit down, get up, walk, grab things. The formation of motor skills in children in the postnatal period of development allows them to obtain as much information about the world around them.
The first attempts to capture and retain the object appear already in 3-4 months. For such training, light and noisy rattles are suitable. At this age, children begin to understand the relationship between certain movements and the sounds that come with it.
Approximately in 6-7 months babies open an independent way of moving in space - crawling. After a while they try to get on their feet and take the first steps, and the active participation of adults will necessarily benefit this complex process.
At the end of the infantile period, the child tries to imitate the adults in manipulating objects: he brings the cup to his mouth, rolls the machine, knocks on the drum.
During the first year of life, the toddler is attached to his mother, but development in the postnatal period adds self-confidence. At 12 months the baby is already able to walk and is struggling to independence. Parents are surprised to find the moment when the child ceases to obey their will and becomes a person with their desires.
The development of the baby during the late infancy is accompanied by the formation of character and is very fast. A small researcher is calm only at the moment of sleep, and all the rest of the time he literally does not sit still.
Up to two years the child accumulates a passive vocabulary and learns to understand spoken language, so that after a while you can start speaking on your own.
It's no secret that children can develop in different ways. However, there are cases when the principle of "everything in its time" is better not to apply in the postnatal period. Be sure to contact a specialist if the kid has not started walking or playing simple games after a year and a half, after two years does not say a word or reacts to the long absence of the mother (an adult caring for him).
3 to 5 years
Postnatal period of child development is often accompanied by crises, and the first occurs at three years. In place of the "we" position comes an independent "I", which changes the attitude of the baby to everything around him. Instead of the world of objects, the world of people now represents the main interest.
In the younger preschool age, there is a development of communicative activity, social perception and functions of speech, as well as imagination and imaginative thinking.
At the sixth year of life we can evaluate the individuality and character of the baby. With the help of the imagination the child literally paints his life with bright colors. Experts believe that children's drawings in the younger preschool age - this is a link to the inner world of the young artist.
Closer to the school period, the child is well-oriented in time and space, in everyday things and between people.
From 6 to 10 years
About the social preparedness for school says the manifestation of the crisis 6-7 years. The child tries to realize his place in the system of complex social relations, a division of the external and internal world takes place.
In the younger school age, significant changes are being experienced in memory and perception. The leading activity is teaching, there are other duties and the daily routine.
Students show individuality and interest in competitions. They are active, full of energy and curious. It is important for children to see a good example before their eyes: the love of parents, the atmosphere of friendliness, the willingness to come to the rescue and mutual respect.