The prenatal and postnatal periods of child development
The desire to have a child should be meaningful from both parents. The expectant mother is useful not only to know about the forthcoming changes in the body, but read as much information as possible about prenatal and postnatal periods of development of the baby.
Prenatal period prenatal development that lasts on average 280 days (40 weeks), usually subdivided into three stages:
- The initial stage. This is the first week of development from fertilisation to implantation in the uterine lining embryo.
- Embryonic stage. Over the next seven weeks is the formation of all systems and organs. The main food for the baby are substances taken with the mother's blood. In the third week laid the blood vessels, and pronephros (predock) and heart. After seven days completed the formation of the liver, stomach, lung, pancreas and endocrine glands, and primary buds, the rudiments of arms and legs. On the fifth week the embryo continues to develop lungs and bronchi, are formed in the rectum, bladder. After two weeks of intensive growth of the head, you can see eyes and ears, toes and hands.
- The fetal stage. Beginning with the ninth week of pregnancy until birth the baby is gaining weight and growing in size, the continued maturation and development of systems and organs.
Classical music concerts
Until recently the idea to consider the age of the child from conception seemed completely insane, but today scientists are not so skeptical.
The results show that the baby can learn in the womb. The best method of stimulation is to play a baby classical music.
Almost immediately after conception begins to develop a brain crumbs, and by the end of the fifth month is formed the number of brain cells, which will be the same the whole postnatal period. With intrauterine development of cells grow through the intercellular connections.
Stimulation of cells by classical music increases the likelihood of development of intelligence. In addition, in the postnatal period such children are easier to teach, and even begin to speak a few months earlier than peers.
After the birth
Postnatal period is the time from birth to death. In Pediatrics, decided to allocate the following stages of postnatal development:
2. From the second month to a year infancy.
3. The second year of life later childhood.
4. From two to six years — younger childhood (the preschool period).
5. 6-10 years (girls) and 6-12 years (boys) — high school period.
The first month
During the first 28 days of life undergoing fundamental changes. We will tell about the peculiarities of the neonatal period:
- Physiological weight loss. Pediatricians consider it normal weight loss up to 10% in the first five days.
- Immediately after birth infants have a search, sucking, movement and grasping reflex.
- During the first months of life the muscles are toned, and the body automatically adopts the fetal position. Hypertonicity usually disappears after two or three months.
- The number of bowel movements depends on the frequency of feedings. The first two days from bowel meconium is allocated.
- Most of the time newborns spend in sleep – they sleep up to 22 hours a day.
The separation of mother and child during childbirth, of course, affects the psychological state of the baby in the early postnatal period. However, maintaining constant contact and this phase passes without serious consequences.
As for the food, the who and pediatricians all over the world consider breast milk is the perfect diet, especially for newborns. The number and frequency of feedings are best left to the discretion of the baby.
From one month to one year
Imagine how complicated the task facing the child in the first year of life. First the baby learns to hold his head up, then to crawl and sit, stand, walk, grasp objects. The formation of the motor skills in children in the postnatal period of development allows them to obtain as much information as possible about the world.
The first attempts to capture and hold the subject to appear in 3-4 months. For these workouts, a suitable light and noisy rattles. At this age children begin to understand the relationship of certain movements and caused by this sounds.
Around 6-7 months babies discover an independent way of moving in space – crawling. After some time they try to stand and take those first steps, and the active participation of adults will definitely benefit from this complex process.
At the end of the infant period, the child tries to imitate adults in the manipulation of objects: lifts the mug to his mouth, rolls the car, knocking on the drum.
During the first year of life baby tied to the mother, but development in the postnatal period adds self-confidence. At 12 months the baby has learned to walk and struggles for independence. Parents are surprised to discover the moment when the child ceases to submit to their will and becomes the person with the desires.
The development of the baby in the period of late infancy is accompanied by the formation of the character and is a very fast pace. Little Explorer relaxed only at the time of sleep, and all the while he literally sits on the site.
To two years the child accumulates passive vocabulary and learning to understand the spoken language, so after some time to start telling yourself.
It is no secret that children can develop in different ways. However, there are cases when the principle “all the time” better not to apply in the postnatal period. Be sure to consult a specialist if the baby is after a year and a half has not started to walk or play a simple game after two years without a word or react to the long absence of the mother (caring for him adult).
From 3 to 5 years
Postnatal period of child development has often been accompanied by crises, the first is due in three years. The change of position of “we” comes in separate “I” that changes the attitude of the baby to everything around him. Instead of a world of objects the main interest now is the human world.
In the younger preschool age is the development of communication, social perception and function of speech, as well as imagination and creative thinking.
In the sixth year of life we can assess the personality and character of the baby. Through imagination, the child literally paints your life in bright colors. Experts believe that children's drawings in the younger preschool age is the connection with the inner world of the young artist.
Closer to the school period, the child is well oriented in time and space in the everyday things and relationships between people.
From 6 to 10 years
About social school readiness speaks of the crisis of 6-7 years. The child tries to understand its place in the system of complex social relations, there is a separation of internal and external peace.
In the early school years considerable changes were made in memory and perception. The leading activity is the teaching, there are other responsibilities and daily routine.
Students show personality and interest in the competition. They are active, full of energy and inquisitive. It is important for children to see a good example before my eyes: the love of parents, the atmosphere of friendliness, willingness to help and mutual respect.