Police dogs: breeds, training, kennel dogs MVD
Since ancient times the dog was tamed by man. She became his faithful companion – a guard, a shepherd, a watchman. Over time, the special qualities these animals have been used in the public service.
Service dog breeding in Russia: history
Russia has always bred a lot of dogs that were used for protection and as a means of transportation in the Northern regions. In the Caucasus and Central Asia was bred herding breed (South Russian Ovcharka), which received awards at the exhibition in Paris.
In 1904, J. Bongard founded the sanitary service dogs. It was used by the German shepherd.
In 1908, created a society that promoted the use of dogs in guard and police services. This organization was small, its membership includes about 300 high-ranking officials and police officers. Later this society opened a nursery and a school for police dog handlers.
In our country, the Day of canine units of the interior Ministry note from June 21, 1909. With this date began the story of a service dog. In St. Petersburg opened Russia's first cattery is engaged in breeding and training police dogs detective. At its base, the school trainers.
Pretty quickly the use of dogs has spread throughout the country — by December 1912, the dogs began to apply for serious crime in fifty Russian regions.
The development of working dogs in the Soviet years
After the civil war the service dog continues to grow. The formation of new nurseries and the training of handlers. In 1923 he developed a training program for instructors of the border service. In the same year, began its work school dogs rozysknikov. Animals were prepared for the criminal investigation of the NKVD.
In late August of 1924 created the famous kennel "Red Star". 1928 starts to be a recording of dogs in the all-Union pedigree book. At the same time, opened training courses for experts and tribal judicial work.
Official breed in Soviet Russia became a Doberman, but in that time, experts began to discuss the possibility of breeding domestic breeds, as well as acquiring purebred German shepherds abroad.
The war years
In the first days of the great Patriotic war almost all the service dog clubs of our country have to surrender their children to the army. The number of animals sent for help to the Soviet soldiers was in the thousands. While most clubs and kennels managed to keep the breeding herd.
In this difficult for our country time of the dogs formed teams of mine detectors and tank destroyers. Often dog experts went to the front with their Pets. The war inflicted great damage to the working dog of the Soviet Union, many nurseries and clubs started in the postwar years, from scratch.
The development of working dogs in our days
Today, the prestige dog service in our country has increased significantly. Anyone wishing to become dog handlers are carefully selected, not only among the applicants for the position, but also among dogs. Candidate handlers must promptly establish contact with the animal.
Today, 78 constituent entities of Russia have their own service dog. They comprise: kinologov MVD – more than 7,000 people, kinologov MVD – more than 3,000 professionals.
In our days police dogs in Russia – about a dozen species. Some of them offer a full range of sniffer work, others are involved at certain sites.
Universal (and fundamental) police dogs — the German shepherd. These animals are effective in working with the PPP outfit, perfect reputation and investigative work at the crime scene, show excellent results in the search units. The main advantage of German shepherds, a stable psyche. It is physically strong with a high level of intelligence, the animal.
Similar qualities differs a close relative of the "Germans" — the East European shepherd. This dog is also widely used today in the police.
Rapidly gaining popularity new, not previously used species. Police dog breeds Belgian shepherd are distinguished by high speed and "explosive" throw, which leaves no chance to the attacker to avoid arrest.
Rottweilers are found in the Ministry of internal Affairs, much less. These brave, moderately aggressive and intelligent animals are patrol and engaged in search work.
Some breeds that are suitable for law enforcement, our police are less represented. For example, the black Terrier and giant Schnauzer is a great security guards, but their content is too expensive. Dobermans who served in the tsarist police, today, are not applied at all, as experts noted a significant deterioration selective breed on the territory of our country.
Why not use a fighting breed?
Experts say that canine units, with representatives fighting breeds, can be counted on the fingers. This has its reasons: for example, the detention of the offender is not required stranglehold bull Terrier. And when you consider that these dogs react aggressively to other animals, it becomes clear — the police dogs not to be.
There are breeds of which experts continue to argue until now. They can not determine dogs that are not designed for detention. The main battles cause the police dog breed Spaniel and Labrador. Opinions of dog handlers were divided. Some believe that both species are suitable as search engines, others give the palm spaniels, noting the conflict of Labrador and that they are easily distracted from work by extraneous stimuli.
The use of dogs in the interior Ministry
Police dogs undoubtedly exert on others psychological impact. It is hard to imagine a daredevil who does not fulfill the requirements of a police officer, or (even worse) would object to him showing aggression, if the guards on a leash will be a powerful Rottweiler or shepherd.
Probably not everybody knows that training dogs is the main goal — to minimize harm to human. Well-prepared and strong physically shepherd the detention can cause very serious injuries. That is why it is in this situation is presented the main requirement is immediately and unquestioningly obey the command "go!".
In the internal troops of the interior Ministry and transport departments police dogs engaged in the detection of explosives and drugs.
In the forensic work of the Ministry of the interior can not do without a sensitive sense of smell of a dog. Sometimes the police dog helps to reveal a complex crime that many employees felt "deaf".
Dog experts believe that the Greyhound is an animal, reached the top of a "career." Not all the representatives of the different breeds are able to do such a noble thing. And those who with this work by definition can handle, are a serious course of education and training, which continue to the end of the service animal.
Real-sniffing dog must master these skills:
- work on the trail
- security of premises and individual items
- search the building or area
- distrust of outsiders
- the detention of the offender and the protection of it until the arrival of police.
During training the dogs is the development of not only the scent but also exacerbated the ability to feel the human condition. Trainers claim that dogs can smell fear. This often helps the four-legged "law enforcement" to reveal the most intricate crimes.
It is scientifically proven that the probability that the dog is in odor go wrong — one in a hundred million. The behavior of the animal when odorologičeskie expertise (for example, when it is necessary to establish whether the murder weapon to a specific person) is conclusive evidence in court.
To raise a good dog, you must consider the age of the animal. The dog must be no older than three years, hardy, physically strong, have sharp ears and a unique nose. Training such animals lasts about six months in special schools.
The training of the police dogs is at the age of one to three years. In an animal kennel secured for instructor and guide training. Training a service dog takes between six to eight months. During this time the animal develops General training and training in specialized disciplines (search for drugs and explosives).
Canine service MVD applies a combination of the two methods, games and taste-rewarding. The second option allows to establish a close contact between a young dog and an instructor, thereby reducing training time.
The first method implements a natural need of the dog to the game and the minimum load of the nervous system of the animal brings up the desire to carry out the assignment. This method is especially effective for search engines. In addition, this method has been successfully used in the coaching to detention.
"Decoy" — the trainer in a tight suit, which depicts the violator, clip on costume is a favorite toy dog, and the dog is supposed to disrupt it. After successful completion of the task, the puppy-child to be allowed to take the protective sleeve from the trainer and plenty to pull. The training is based on the hunting instinct of the animal.
After completing the course of training the dog is able to detain the offender, not being afraid of strikes, no shots. You must know that training on the area on which animals are "torn to pieces" instructor, with real use of dogs have little in common. We have already mentioned that after being bitten, the dog is required to release the offender on the first team. "Mercy" on the training ground is allowed to satisfy the instincts of the animal and gives him emotional release.
Sampling of things the smell produced simply and does not require a lot of time and effort. This skill is required dog differentiators of smell (bloodhounds). Today the techniques of training in the sample promising for dog training protective guard and investigative services. In this regard, almost every nursery of dogs of the interior Ministry of the USSR used the training sample to treat, designating the selected item styling.
However, this technique, which significantly improved the performance of the work, has significant drawbacks — dogs pollute choose things own smell. Animals work effectively only on those things that have a strong and fresh smell.
The use of dogs in law enforcement around the world is still relevant. If it works on the trail, or looking for drugs – her help in solving crimes cannot be overstated. But keep in mind that the dog's jobs are very diverse – they are rescuers in emergency situations, assistants, military and police, show excellent results at customs, guarding important objects.