Police dogs: breeds, training, nursery of service dogs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
Since ancient times, the dog has been tamed by man. She became his faithful assistant - a guard, a shepherd, a watchman. Over time, the special qualities of these animals began to be used in the public service.
Official dog breeding in Russia: history
In Russia, many dogs were always bred, which were used for protection, and also as a means of transportation in the northern regions. Shepherd breeds (South Russian shepherds) were brought out in the Caucasus and Central Asia, who were awarded at the exhibition in Paris.
In 1904 J. Bungard founded the service of sanitary dogs. It used German shepherds.
In 1908, a society was created that promoted the use of dogs in sentry and police services. This organization was small, it included about 300 high-ranking officials and policemen. Later, this society opened a nursery and a school for the training of police cynologists.
In our country, the Day of Cynologists of the Interior Ministry units is celebrated since June 21, 1909. It was from this date began the history of official dog breeding. In St. Petersburg, opened the first Russian nursery, engaged in the breeding and training of detective police dogs. On its basis the school of trainers began to work.
Quite quickly, the use of service dogs spread throughout the country - by December 1912 dogs were being used to solve serious crimes in fifty Russian provinces.
Development of official dog breeding in the Soviet years
After the end of the Civil War, official dog breeding continues to develop. New nurseries are being formed and dog handlers are being trained. In 1923, a program of courses for border guards was developed. In the same year, the school of search dogs began its work. The animals were prepared for the criminal investigation of the NKVD.
In late August 1924 the famous nursery "Red Star" was created. Since 1928, the recording of service dogs in the All-Union genealogical book begins. At the same time, courses on the training of tribal and judiciary experts were opened.
The main service breed in Soviet Russia was Doberman, but already at that time, experts began to discuss the possibility of breeding domestic breeds, as well as the acquisition of purebred German shepherds abroad.
In the first days of the Great Patriotic War, practically all clubs of official dog breeding in our country began to hand over their pupils to the army. The number of animals sent to help Soviet soldiers was estimated in the thousands. At the same time, most clubs and nurseries managed to keep the breeding stock.
In this difficult time for our country, detachments of mine detectors and tank destroyers were formed from dogs. Often, the expert cynologists went to the front along with their pets. The war caused great damage to the service dog breeding of the Soviet Union, and many nurseries and clubs began their work in the post-war years from scratch.
Development of official dog breeding today
Today the prestige of the cynological service in our country has significantly increased. Everyone wishing to become a cynologist is being rigorously selected, not only among applicants for this position, but also among service dogs. A candidate for cynologists should contact the animal as soon as possible.
Today, 78 subjects of Russia have their own service dog breeding centers. They include: cynologists of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - more than 7000 people, cadets of Internal Affairs Ministry - more than 3000 specialists.
Nowadays police dogs in Russia are about a dozen breeds. Some of them carry out a full range of work and search work, others are involved in certain areas of it.
Universal (and basic) police dogs are German shepherds. These animals are also effective in working with the outfit of the PPS, they have also proved themselves in operational investigation at the crime scene, they show excellent results in the search units. The main advantage of the German shepherd is a stable psyche. It is physically strong, with a high level of intelligence, an animal.
The close relative of the "Germans" -a Eastern European shepherd-is distinguished by similar qualities. Today this dog is also widely used in the police.
Belgian Shepherd Dog
Rapidly gaining popularity are new, previously unused breeds. Police dogs of the Belgian Shepherd breed are distinguished by high speed and an "explosive" throw, which leaves no chance for the intruder to escape detention.
Rottweilers are found in the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs much less often. These brave, moderately aggressive and intelligent animals successfully carry patrol service and are engaged in search work.
Some breeds that are suitable for law enforcement are less represented in our police. For example, black terriers and risen schnauzers are great guards, but their maintenance is too expensive. Dobermans, who served in the tsarist police, are not being used at all today, as experts note a significant selective deterioration of the breed on the territory of our country.
Why are not warrior breeds used?
Experts argue that the cynological units that have representatives of fighting breeds can be counted on the fingers. This has its own explanations: for example, when a criminal is detained, the bull terrier does not need a dead grip. And if you consider that these dogs are aggressively reacting to other animals, it becomes clear - they do not become police dogs.
There are breeds that experts continue to argue until now. They can not in any way identify dogs that are not intended to be detained. The main battles are caused by police dogs of the Spaniel and Labrador breed. The opinions of the cynologists were divided. Some believe that both breeds are suitable, as search engines, others give the palm to the Spaniels, noting the conflict of Labradors and the fact that they easily get distracted from work by extraneous stimuli.
Use of dogs in the Ministry of Internal Affairs
Police dogs, of course, have a psychological impact on others. It's hard to imagine a daredevil who does not fulfill the demands of a police officer, or (worse) will object to him, showing aggression if a powerful Rottweiler or a sheepdog is next to the guards on the leash.
Probably, not everyone knows that training dog dogs has the main goal - minimizing harm to humans. Well-trained and strong physically shepherd at detention is capable of causing very serious injuries. That's why to her in this situation, the basic requirement is to instantly and unquestioningly execute the "release!" Command.
In the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and in transport units, police dogs are engaged in the detection of explosives and drugs.
In expert forensic work of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, can not do without a sensitive nose of the dog. Sometimes a dog-snoop helps to disclose the most complex crimes, which many employees seemed to be "deaf."
Dog handlers are sure that the sniffer is an animal that has reached the top of the "career". Not all representatives of different breeds are capable of dealing with such a noble cause. And those who, by definition, can cope with this job, undergo a serious training and training course that does not stop before the end of the animal's service.
A real sniffer dog should learn these skills:
- work on the trail;
- security of premises and separate items;
- search of a building or area;
- distrust of outsiders;
- detention of the offender and protection of him before the arrival of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
During the lessons of the bloodhounds, not only the scent develops, but the ability to feel the general state of the person is exacerbated. Instructors say that dogs feel fear. This often helps four-legged "law enforcement" to disclose the most intricate crimes.
Scientifically proven that the probability is that the dog in the smell is mistaken - one to one hundred million. The behavior of the animal under the expertise of an expert (for example, when it is necessary to establish whether the instrument of crime belongs to a specific person) is irrefutable evidence in court.
To raise a good bloodhound, it is necessary to take into account the age of the animal. The dog must be no older than three years old, hardy, physically strong, have a keen ear and a unique scent. Training of such animals lasts about six months in specialized schools.
Training of police dogs is conducted at the age of one to three years. In the nursery, the animal is assigned to the instructor and sent to the training. Preparation of a service dog lasts from six to eight months. During this time, the animal learns the general course of training and training in special disciplines (the search for drugs and explosives).
Cynological service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs applies a combination of two methods - game and taste-encouraging. The second option allows you to establish close contact between the young dog and the instructor, thereby reducing the training period.
The first method realizes the dog's natural need for the game and minimally burdens the animal's nervous system, brings up the desire to fulfill the task. This method is especially effective for search engines. In addition, this method is successfully used when training for detention.
"Figurant" is a trainer in a dense suit, which depicts the intruder, fixes the pet toy of the dog on the suit, and the animal must disrupt it. After the successful completion of the assignment, the teenage puppy is allowed to take the protective sleeve from the trainer and thoroughly pat it. Training is built on the basis of the animal's hunting instinct.
After passing the training course, the dog is able to detain the offender, not being afraid of blows or shots. It is necessary to know that training on the site, in which animals "tear to pieces" the instructor, with a real application of the dog have little in common. We have already mentioned that after the bite the dog must release the offender on the first team. "Rape" on the training area is allowed to meet the instincts of the animal and gives him an emotional discharge.
Sampling of things by smell is simple and does not require much time and effort. This skill is necessary for dogs-odor differentiators (bloodhounds). Today, training methods for the sample are also promising for the training of dogs for protective guarding and search services. In this regard, almost every nursery of service dogs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR applied training to a sample for a treat, indicating the chosen object by styling.
However, this technique, which at one time significantly increased the effectiveness of the work, has significant drawbacks - dogs pollute the chosen things with their own smell. Animals work effectively only for those things that have a strong and fresh smell.
The use of service dogs in law enforcement agencies around the world is still relevant. Whether she works on the trail, or is looking for drugs - her help in uncovering crimes can not be overemphasized. But it should be borne in mind that the dog professions are very diverse - they serve as rescuers in the Ministry of Emergency Situations, assistants to the military and drug police, show excellent results at customs, guard important facilities.