OHP, level 3: feature
In recent years, increasingly possible to hear from parents that they are concerned about the speech development of the child. Someone thinks that the kid doesn't say much, his vocabulary is insufficient and does not meet the minimum age standards
The reasons for the attenuation of the speech progress of young children
The kid grows up and begins to say simple words. Parents it is strongly encouraged, they are proud of these successes and are willing to show the ability of the little man all the relatives. It takes a little time, the child seizes walking upright, and mom is in a hurry to specialists, requiring the consultation of a speech therapist. The main problem, according to them, is that the baby suddenly stopped talking, his speech never develops. This view is mistaken, child psychologists and speech therapists explain the reason for this apparent delay because the development of children of early and preschool age has a wavelike nature. With the emergence of new skills such as bipedalism, conscious manipulation of objects, it creates the appearance of damping has already been purchased. In fact, the child's speech continues to develop, accumulating passive vocabulary and contributing to the development of intellectual functions. The task of parents at this stage — to continue active communication effects on the child, can tell the small stories, to memorize short poems. Over time the speech activity of the child is resumed, it will accumulate communicative skills at a record pace.
Characteristics of the speech problems of a preschooler
The concern should cause a so-called comprehensive speech disorders, are often diagnosed to three years. Experts identify a number of specific violations that indicate serious problems in preschool. The first and most common believe the late start of the speech as a whole: the first basic words appear in the dictionary three to four years, sometimes even five. Explicit allocation of agrammatism in the reasoning of the baby and the imperfection of the structure of the statements of the experts identify as the second manifestation of violations. Third, what can and should alert adults, is the inability to Express their thoughts properly understood, addressed to him the message. And the fourth and last sign, can be malonates and slurred speaking preschooler. The presence of such abnormalities suggests a General underdevelopment of speech of the baby, but the final diagnosis will be set only by a specialist-therapist.
Features of development of communicative skills in children with speech pathology
To determine the existing deviations in the child's development without the participation of a speech therapist or a child psychologist it is difficult, as parents, do not have special education, at risk to be mistaken in their assumptions. The communication of the preschool child with complex speech pathology, developed much worse than the kids, it develops into the norm, or those who have OHP 3 level. Characteristic disturbances in such children is very versatile: such pathology, as a distortion pronunciation violation of the structure of the syllables (almost always in the direction of its reduction). Language development the child with General underdevelopment 3 levels noticeably higher. These preschoolers noticeable formation of the expanded phrase speech, but are pronounced elements of underdevelopment. Communication in these kids is difficult due to the misunderstanding surrounding them. They are fluent only in the society of those people who will be able to elaborate and explain what they said. To date, NRO 2-3 levels are the most common speech disorders of today's children. For a number of reasons, the officially recorded number of such pathologies is growing every year.
The specificity of the speech of children with ONR
Self-diagnose the lag of the formation of the communicative functions of experts do not recommend. Despite common characteristics, each baby has their own individual specifics and the reason for the violation. The delay of speech development of preschool children is of complex disorders, it will confirm every speech therapist. ONR level 3 is characterized by visible failures in the system of communication: violations of the vocabulary and grammar of phonetics. When this baby is actively trying to use sentences of different complexity levels: complex, compound, simple common. The component itself may be preserved, but often broken due to omissions or rearrangements of the structural components. In the vocabulary of a preschooler begin to appear dissyllabic or trisyllabic words that the kid likes to use, he uses them with pleasure, carefully enunciating. The grammatical structure of speech is an unfinished character, this error can be intermittent. The same phrase or sentence preschooler can say as with violations and next time correctly. Lexical imperfections also easily fixed, despite the apparent quantitative growth of vocabulary. The kid is not bothered pronouncing difficult words. For example, instead of saying "the cyclist", the child will say "uncle is coming". Frequent in the speech of the preschool child and change the name of the whole object words denoting its individual parts and Vice versa, whichever is easier to pronounce. If it is difficult to say a compound word, you can also replace it with the name of the species, and Vice versa: instead of "Sparrow" the kid will say "bird" instead of "trees" can say "tree". Often in his speech, the children with the NRO level 3 allow for mutual substitution of the attributes, such as: high, wide is "large" short "little".
Especially the level of development of coherent speech
Special attention child life specialists pay to the development of coherent speech in children of preschool age as monologic and Dialogic. Primary school teachers are increasingly faced with the problem of the inability of the student to coherently build your answer to formulate your own statement. Often parents are too absorbed in the fight for clean sounds, are missing such a significant aspect as the formation of skills of coherent narrative. And only having been on the advice of a speech therapist, you begin to understand the importance of such omissions. Coherent statements of a child with a developmental delay are characterized by specific originality. The kid is quite difficult to build a complex and detailed phrase. Storyline the story is constantly interrupted because of the loss of significant semantic elements. Independent language activity is markedly reduced, often the baby is difficult to translate words from passive vocabulary to active. The child with ONR level 3 hard to find words to describe favorite toys, it is usually restricted to mean the definitions and short phrases.
Feature phonemic awareness
Speech development of preschool children with disorders of communication functions other than the insufficiency and imperfection: exercise on the selection of images with a specified sound in its name, such children perform with assistance, or cannot perform at all. It is difficult to differentiate and vowels in different positions in words. Any manipulation of phonemes difficult. The game "Catch sound", "syllable Catch", "Catch-word" does not cause kids interest, so as to comply with the rules it is difficult, they are always late and lagging behind other kids players, of developing normal. Difficulties may cause and ordinary differentiation "vowel – consonant", so the child also tries to avoid games to solidify this skill.
Correction of speech pathologies
After inspection the baby children's speech therapy specialist can make a diagnosis "DNS 3". A characteristic set of symptoms makes it clear the correct direction of the correctional and rehabilitation effects aimed at eliminating the violations of speech development. Correcting the situation is planning, and should engage a licensed children's therapist. First and foremost, a correctional treatment is directed at the understanding and awareness of speech, problems of vocabulary and grammar. It is also very important and the correct pronunciation of sounds, structuring sentences and cohesive statements. In the work with preschool children with General speech underdevelopment of level 3, attention is also paid to formation of skills to build their own phrasal utterances used in the expanded functions. Training to improve writing skills and reading skills experts recommend to take enough time after fixing some of the dynamics of correction of speech problems.
Psychological problems of children with speech and language disorders
The correction of speech deficiencies in children of preschool age is usually comprehensive. In addition to speech exposure, the child also requires the assistance of a child psychologist. Because of the complex speech disorders in toddler, there are often also problems with concentration of attention. It's hard to stay on task, as well as to keep the attention long on one object. The health of these children is significantly reduced, they quickly get tired of learning activities. The task of the psychologist is to arrange psychological support baby during speech correction. The first thing to pay attention to the increase in the level of motivation of pre-school children with a diagnosis of ONR level 3 to speech therapy classes and training. It is important to organize the implementation of corrective and psychological impact, aimed at developing the ability to concentrate, to hold him the required amount of time, the expansion volume. Professionals recommend, taking into account psychological peculiarities of children with complex speech disorders, conduct classes with multiple kids, dividing one group into two or three subgroups. The psychologist may also plan and conduct individual sessions with preschool children who have problems with speech, and also perhaps combining them into subgroups. You should pay attention to the level of self-esteem of the child: low will hinder quick performance due to lack of faith in own success and unwillingness to help themselves. That is why child life specialists and recommend comprehensive correction of speech deficiencies in the conditions of specially organized children's institution called "the Center of development of the child."
The focus of the comprehensive intervention
The implementation of the system of psychological and pedagogical work aimed at stimulating the speech centers of the baby, the development of cognitive and volitional spheres of mental and communicative development of preschool children should show a positive trend. First of all, it should be a noticeable improvement of the ability to correctly perceive the speech addressed to him in accordance with the existing age standards. You should get the maximum child of the correctness of the sound design of words, their structure. Improvement and development of the active communication occurs through the formation of ability to use sentences of different complexity, to combine phrases into a coherent monologue. Basic skills of retelling, as a rule, also subject to improvement and corrective effects. The NRO (level 3 speech development) characterized by the inability to repeat heard the text, even if it is small volume. The teachers on the stage of correction is to teach the skill and to build on the success. Preschoolers are developing into the norm, willing to enter into verbal interaction with each other in the form of a dialogue. The formation of communicative speech of a child with delayed development is imperfect, so the formation of skills to support the interview, he also must learn in the course of him remedial work. Educational interventions generally involves the formation of the ability to formulate self-statements, using case endings correctly according to the words in sentences.
Organization of a complex intervention
Pedagogical approach to correcting the speech deficiencies of the modern preschooler – the process is quite complicated and requires special and structural implementation, especially for kids diagnosed with ONR 3 levels. Remedial work is most effectively conducted in conditions of specialized pre-school institutions, taking into account the planned interaction of all narrow pediatric specialists and qualified teachers. The regime of the stay of the child in an institution, you'll be sparing organization and the correctional orientation. In addition to underdevelopment of speech at different levels, is found and the diagnosis of "dysarthria". ONR level 3 often in this is a related problem. Teachers working with these students, build corrective therapy given pathology, making it more structured and comprehensive. The diagnosis of "dysarthria" has the right to put a pediatric neurologist, which takes into account the conclusion of the speech therapist. Most often the so-called erased form of the disease, to correct that a bit easier and faster if the correctional impact, add also medication. Themselves medications and dosages assigns a pediatric neurologist or psychiatrist. Institutions in which there is a dedicated specialized correction of deficiencies in communicative functions, kids usually have the status of "child development Center". The centre orientation may be different from intervention on children with the aim to improve the child's speech to correct deficiencies in intellectual function. Professionals working in such institutions are special programs and special itineraries for students, which in this case is somewhat different in complexity and duration of sessions, depending on the level of violation. Most common in children with the NRO level 3. Characteristics of a baby with a deviation takes into account all sides of the violations of speech, and psychological.
Guidance for parents from pediatric specialists
Faced with the problem of speech disorders in your child, parents should not despair. The diagnosis of a speech therapist or even a child neurologist is not a sentence, but simply a call to action. The causes of the communicative abnormalities of different, including genetic, neurological, and determine their nature only by means of a special survey conducted by the relevant specialists. Strict adherence to the recommendations, as a rule, is the key to success in the fight for the purity and correctness of speech in a toddler. It is also important to pose and argue with teachers of preschool institutions, who are beginning to suspect that the child has a pathology called the NRO (level 3). Overview and description of conversational violations of the baby, compiled by educators of children's institutions will help professionals quickly understand the degree and nature of the pathology. In turn, this will help you quickly and efficiently organize and carry out correction of existing deviations. The success of the correction of defects of the communicative function of speech often depends on understanding the depth of the problem and the degree of responsibility for its elimination by the parents themselves. In close cooperation with correctionists and teachers, with the strict implementation of all recommendations and assignments, you can count on the success of the deliverance of the child from such trouble. The process of remediation and rehabilitation, as a rule, rather long and laborious, it can take several months or a year. You need to be patient and to concentrate efforts on the organization of joint assistance to the child with ONR 3-4 levels. One should not ignore medications that are recommended by the doctor, as in cases where the violation is of a neurological nature, comprehensive rehabilitative and drug therapy to contribute actively to the elimination of deviations. This, in turn, will significantly simplify and speed up the process of getting rid of speech problems.