ОНР, 3 level: characteristic
Recently, more often you can hear from parents of babies that they are concerned about the child's speech development. Someone thinks that the little one speaks little, his vocabulary is inadequate and does not correspond to age norms; others believe that he speaks a lot, but the sound is vague and indistinct. Some do not like the pace of the preschooler's speech, but there are also parents who record the absolute absence of speech from their little child. Whether it is worth starting to worry and whether the conversational level of the child of preschool age corresponds to the age norms, only specialists in children's pathology of speech can correctly identify.
Causes of attenuation of verbal progress in young children
The baby grows up and begins to speak the first simple words. Parents are very pleased, they are proud of such successes and willingly demonstrate the ability of a little man to all relatives. It takes a little time, the child takes the lead, and the mothers are already rushing to the specialists, demanding a consultation with the speech therapist. The main problem, in their opinion, is that the kid suddenly stopped talking, his speech is no longer developing. This opinion is erroneous, child psychologists and speech therapists explain the reason for such a visible delay in that the development of children of early and younger preschool age is undulating. With the emergence of new skills, such as uprightness, conscious manipulation of objects, the appearance of the damping of those already acquired is created. In fact, the child's speech continues to actively develop, accumulating a passive vocabulary and promoting the development of intellectual functions. The task of parents at this stage is to continue active communicative influence on the child, read more, tell small tales, learn short poems. Over time, the child's speech activity will resume, and he will accumulate communicative skills at a record pace.
Characteristics of the preschooler's speech problems
Anxiety should be caused by so-called comprehensive speech disorders, which are diagnosed often by three years. Specialists identify a number of specific disorders that point to serious problems in the preschooler. The first and most common is the belated beginning of speech in general: the first elementary words appear in the dictionary to three or four years, sometimes even to five. The explicit allocation of agrammatisms in the child's reasoning and the imperfection of the structure of statements specialists identify as the second manifestation of violations. The third thing that can and should alert the adults is the inability to express one's thoughts with the correct understanding of the message addressed to him. And the last, fourth sign, can be a little understood and incoherent speech of a preschooler. The presence of such pathologies makes it possible to assume a general underdevelopment of speech in the baby, but the final diagnosis can be established only by a graduate speech therapist.
Features of development of communicative skills in children with speech pathologies
To determine the existing deviations in the development of a child without the participation of a speech therapist or a child psychologist is difficult, since parents who do not have a special education risk being mistaken in their assumptions. The communicative nature of a preschool child with complex speech pathologies is much worse than in babies whose speech develops normally, or for those who have grade 3 OSR. Characteristics of violations in these children is very multifaceted: there are pathologies such as distortion of pronunciation, violation of the structure of syllables (almost always in the direction of its decrease). The development of the speech of a child with a general underdevelopment of the third level is much higher. These pre-school children notice the formation of unfolded phrase-like speech, but the elements of underdevelopment are clearly expressed. Communication with these kids is difficult due to a lack of understanding of their surrounding. They speak freely only in the society of those people who can concretize and explain what they have said. To date, OHR 2-3 levels are considered the most common speech pathologies of modern children. For a number of reasons, the officially recorded number of such pathologies is growing every year.
Specificity of speech of children with OHP
Experts do not recommend diagnosing the gap in the formation of the communicative function. Despite the presence of common signs, each child has its own specific specificity and the cause of the violation. The delay in the development of the speech of a child of preschool age refers to complex disorders, this will be confirmed by each speech therapist. Level 3 OSR is characterized by visible disruptions in the system of communication: violations of vocabulary and grammar, phonetics. At the same time the kid actively tries to use offers of various degrees of complexity: compound, complex, simple common. The component itself can be preserved, but often disrupted due to the skipping or rearrangement of structural components. In the preschool dictionary begin to appear disyllabic or three-syllable words, which the kid likes to use, he uses them with pleasure, carefully pronounces. The grammatical system of speech is clearly incomplete, while errors can be unstable. The same phrase or sentence preschooler can pronounce both with violations, and the next time correctly. Lexical imperfections are also easily fixed, despite the apparent quantitative growth of the vocabulary. The kid does not bother with pronouncing complex words. For example, instead of saying "cyclist", the child will say "Uncle goes". Quite often in the speech of such a preschooler and the replacement of the name of the whole object with words denoting its separate parts, and vice versa, depending on what is easier to pronounce. If he finds it difficult to say a complex word, he can also replace it with the name of the species, and vice versa: instead of "sparrow" the baby will say "bird", instead of "trees" can say "Christmas tree". Often, in their speech, children with grade 3 OGR admit mutual substitution of features, for example: high, broad - it's "big", short - "small."
Features of the level of development of coherent speech
Special attention is paid by children's specialists to the development of coherent speech in pre-school children, both monologic and dialogical. In elementary school teachers are increasingly confronted with the problem of the student's inability to constructively construct his own answer, formulate his own statement. Often, parents, too carried away by the struggle for the purity of sound, miss such an important aspect as the formation of the ability of a coherent narrative. And only after visiting the speech therapist's consultations, they begin to understand the importance of such an omission. Connected statements of the child with a delay in development differ in their specific originality. It is quite difficult for a kid to build complex and unfolded phrases. The plot line of the story is constantly interrupted due to the loss of essential semantic elements. Independent speech activity is markedly reduced, often the kid finds it difficult to translate words from the passive vocabulary into the active one. A child with a 3-level OGR has a hard time picking up words to describe his favorite toys, he is usually limited to mean definitions and short phrases.
Feature of phonemic perception
Speech development of preschool children with disorders of communicative functions is characterized by inadequacy and imperfection: the exercise for selecting an image with a given sound in its name is performed by children with outside help, or they can not be performed at all. It is difficult for them to differentiate and vowel sounds in different positions in words. Any manipulation of phonemes is difficult. The games "Catch the sound", "Catch the syllable", "Catch the word" do not cause the kids interest, as they are very difficult to observe the rules, they are constantly late and lag behind other child-players developing in the norm. Difficulties can also be caused by simple differentiation "vowel-consonant", so the child also tries to avoid games aimed at securing this skill.
Correction of speech pathologies
After examining the baby with a child speech therapist, a specialist can diagnose "ONR, Level 3". Characterization of the totality of symptoms clearly allows us to understand the correct direction of corrective and rehabilitation effects aimed at eliminating violations of speech development. The corrected children's speech therapist plans and should do. First of all, corrective treatment is aimed at understanding and understanding speech, eliminating violations of vocabulary and grammar. Important importance is attached to the correct sound-and-sounding, structuring of sentences and coherent statements. In work with preschool children who have a general underdevelopment of speech level 3, attention is also paid to the formation of the ability to independently construct phraseological statements used in the expanded function. Preparation for the improvement of written skills and reading skills, experts recommend to set aside enough time after fixing some dynamics of correction of speech problems.
Psychological problems of children with speech underdevelopment
Correction of speech deficiencies in preschool children is, as a rule, complex. In addition to speech therapy, the child also needs help from a child psychologist. Due to complex speech disorders, the baby often has problems with concentration of attention. It is difficult for him to concentrate on the task, as well as to keep his attention for a long time on the same object. The efficiency of such children is significantly reduced, they quickly become tired of learning activities. The task of the psychologist is to organize psychological support for the baby during the speech therapy period. First of all, we should pay attention to increasing the level of motivation of preschool children with a diagnosis of grade 3 OGR to speech therapy and learning. It will also be important to organize a corrective psychological influence aimed at developing the ability to concentrate attention, to retain its necessary amount of time, to expand the volume. Experts recommend, taking into account the psychological characteristics of children with complex speech disorders, classes to conduct with several kids, dividing one group into two or three subgroups. The psychologist can also plan and conduct individual sessions with preschoolers who have problems with speech, perhaps also grouping them into subgroups. We should also pay attention to the level of the child's self-esteem: the underreported will hamper quick performance due to unbelief in their own success and unwillingness to help themselves. That is why the children's specialists recommend a comprehensive correction of speech deficiencies in a specially organized children's institution called "Child Development Center".
The direction of complex corrective action
As a result of the implementation of systematic psychological and pedagogical work aimed at stimulating the speech centers of the baby, the development of the cognitive and volitional spheres, the level of mental and communicative development of the preschool child should show positive dynamics. First of all, this should be noticeable in improving the ability to correctly perceive the speech addressed to it in accordance with the existing age standards. It is necessary to obtain from the child the maximum correctness of the sound design of words, the transfer of their structure. Improvement and development of active communication is due to the formation of the ability to use offers of varying complexity, combine phrases in a coherent monologue. The simplest skills of retelling, as a rule, are also subject to improvement and corrective action. ONR (level 3 of speech development) is characterized by inability to retell the heard text, even if it is a small volume. The task of teachers at the stage of correction is to teach this skill and consolidate success. Preschoolers, developing in the norm, willingly enter into verbal interaction with each other in the form of a dialogue. The formation of the communicative speech of a child with a delay in development is imperfect, therefore, he must also learn the formation of the ability to support a conversation in the course of corrective work done with him. Pedagogical influence, as a rule, also assumes the formation of the ability to formulate independent statements, using case endings, correctly coordinating words in sentences.
Organization of complex corrective action
The pedagogical approach to correcting the speech deficiencies of a modern preschooler is a rather complicated process and requires special and structural implementation, especially for babies diagnosed with grade 3 OSR. Corrective work is most effectively carried out in the conditions of specialized preschool institutions, taking into account the planned interaction of all narrow children's specialists and qualified teachers. The regime of the child's stay in such an institution is distinguished by a sparing organization and correctional orientation. In addition to underdevelopment of speech at different levels, there is also a diagnosis of "dysarthria". On the third level, OSR is often a concomitant problem. Teachers working with such pupils are building corrective therapy with pathology in mind, making it more structured and complex. The diagnosis of "dysarthria" has the right to put a pediatric neurologist who takes into account the speech therapist. The most common is the so-called stunted form of pathology, which is a little easier to fix and faster, if you add medication to the corrective effect. The medicines and dosage itself are prescribed by a pediatric neurologist or psychiatrist. Institutions in which a purposeful specialized correction of deficiencies in the communicative function of toddlers is carried out, as a rule, have the status of a "Child Development Center". The focus of the center can be different: from the corrective impact on children in order to improve the speech of the child to correct the shortcomings of the intellectual function. Specialists working in such institutions make up special programs and correctional routes for pupils, which differ somewhat in complexity and duration of classes, depending on the level of violation. The most common in children with OGR is level 3. Characteristics of the child with such a deviation takes into account all aspects of violations, both verbal and psychological.
Recommendations for parents from children's specialists
Faced with the problem of verbal disorder in your child, parents should not despair. The diagnosis of a speech therapist or even a children's neurologist is not a verdict, but simply a signal for action. The causes of communicative deviations from the norm are various, including genetic and neurological ones, and their nature can only be determined through a special survey conducted by the relevant specialists. Strict adherence to recommendations, as a rule, is the key to success in the struggle for the purity and correctness of speech in the baby. Do not also become in a pose and argue with teachers of preschool institutions, who begin to suspect that the child has a pathology called ONR (level 3). Characteristics and description of the child's conversational disorders, compiled by the caregivers of the children's institution, will help specialists to understand the degree and nature of pathology more quickly. In turn, this will help quickly and efficiently organize and correct the existing deviation. The success of correcting the shortcomings of the communicative function of speech often depends on an understanding of the depth of the problem and the degree of responsibility for its elimination by the parents themselves. In close interaction with the correctors and teachers, with strict execution of all the recommendations and tasks, you can count on success and getting rid of the baby from such troubles. The process of correction and rehabilitation, as a rule, is long and laborious, it can take not one month or a year.It is necessary to have patience and concentrate the efforts on organization of joint assistance to a child who has HE level 3-4. Do not also ignore the medication that the doctor recommends, since in cases where the disorder is of a neurological nature, complex corrective and drug therapy will actively contribute to eliminating abnormalities. This, in turn, will greatly simplify and speed up the process of getting rid of speech problems.