Speech therapies with a child 3-4 years old
Children with defects in sound production have significantly increased in recent years. A decade ago, the picture was different. The most common problems are in burrs, distortion of sounds, replacement or skipping of those that are difficult to pronounce. These types of defects are considered light and are termed dyslexia. They are relatively easy to adjust in a speech therapist.
But there are also more complex variants of speech disorders. The reasons for this lie in the defeat of the central nervous system, in which there are problems with the normal functioning of the tongue or the entire lower jaw. Such defects are corrected very, very hard. At the same time, pronouncing hissing and whistling sounds, the child puts out the tongue between the teeth, why instead of the whistling sound he gets the sound of "f" ("mafina" instead of "machine"). Very common and incorrect pronunciation of sound "p" (guttural or complete absence of it). As a rule, they start speech therapy with a child 3-4 years, sometimes earlier.
The nature of logopedic disorders
Complex defects occur for a variety of reasons - such as a mother's infectious diseases during pregnancy, birth trauma, or fetal hypoxia. If a child was born after a serious illness, the result may be a blood circulation disorder with nerve endings and, as a consequence, speech defects.
Among the causes is an incorrect bite, and the source of certain disorders (for example, the throat "p") may even be an imitation of a child to someone from adults who also distorts speech. In addition, the child can copy and heroes of modern cartoons, very harmful for development.
Illiteracy is directly affected by improper pronunciation. That is why the parents of each preschooler must take care of the speech defects in the baby's body to be corrected on time. The problem may be the parents' inability to detect a speech defect in children. It is believed that any kid karavit, and it will pass by itself.
When to start worrying
But most often without regular training with a speech therapist can not do. If a 1.5-year-old does not know how to formulate phrases from single words, or if the speech of a two-year-old child is practically absent, an appeal to a speech therapist will most likely be required. Planning for speech therapy sessions by prudent parents is carried out in good time, taking into account the dynamics of child development.
With each of the children, the speech therapist works individually. The setting of one separate sound, as a rule, occurs during several sessions. If there are serious deviations in development, visit logopedic sessions will have much longer.
It happens that the cause of violations is too tight a bridle of the tongue, with no organic lesions. Then at home you should do exercises with the baby for her stretching. The speech therapist's lessons will help you.
Parent family - the basis of everything
Often in the family it is not accepted to talk much with the baby. With him can communicate in a lisping "childish" language. Or he becomes a witness of family scandals. In all these cases, as a rule, the development of speech is hindered.
For the normal development of language skills, a favorable home environment is extremely important. With the baby you need to talk always - during a game or a walk, at a meal and at bedtime. It is necessary to learn by heart verses and read the book aloud aloud.
If you recorded even a slight violation of the sound of a son or daughter, do not isolate yourself from the problem. It is possible to organize speech therapy at home, the benefit of specialized literature is now a dime a dozen. For example, you can arrange a game with the singing of special songs. And only when homework does not give the desired effect, you should think about visiting a specialist.
Do I need a speech therapy kindergarten?
Often parents tend to give their baby not to a regular kindergarten, but to a speech therapy. There is an opinion that the conditions there are preferable for solving the problems that have arisen. Is it really so important to get there? If so, from what age? Will the logopedic classes in the kindergarten really benefit your child?
As a rule, it is not very effective to give a child younger than 3-4 years into the hands of specialists. With the youngest parents can successfully deal with, after consulting with a speech therapist. He will prompt a set of measures and necessary exercises. Logopedic exercises with a child of 3-4 years are already capable of giving a lasting effect.
Arsenal of parental communication with children is huge. This constant correct and active speech communication with the baby, finger exercises, a lot of speech games, carpal massage, special exercises designed to develop fine motor skills, drawing, modeling and so on.
When to go there
Most often, speech defects of a child who has not reached 3-4 years of age, are classified as physiological. If there is no independent correction of the speech by the age of four, you can contact the specialists. By this time, the child's initial speech skills should be already formed. And then it makes sense to give the baby to the speech therapy kindergarten.
The advantage of the latter is the saving of parents' time and money in classes with a specialist in a private way. In public kindergartens there are free speech therapy classes. If the benefits of visiting the group for a long time are not found, most likely, you will need the services of a speech therapist-defectologist with the purpose of general development of speech.
Try to communicate with the baby forever to abandon the funny children's language, which often affects mothers, and especially grandmothers. As mentioned above, communication in such a "warped" manner hinders the development of normal children's speech.
What should a baby know by the age of 4
But even if everyone in the family speaks correctly, and the problems, nevertheless, are there, do not hurry upset. Organize speech therapy sessions with a child of 3-4 years at home is not so difficult. And the main thing here is a sensitive attitude to the speech of the baby and careful monitoring of any changes.
As a rule, the vocabulary of a two-three-year-old child is about a thousand words. A four-year-old kid should normally be able to tell or describe something using prepositions and various parts of speech, to build an uncomplicated dialogue. But his speech apparatus may not yet be sufficiently trained, why pure pronunciation of complex phonemic constructions does not work.
Well, if in 5-6 years there are verbal violations, this is a serious reason to ponder. The following simple exercises related to articulatory gymnastics will help parents at home obtain results.
Lessons with a child at home
To stretch the short frenum of the tongue for 5 or 10 minutes daily, follow these steps. It is necessary to ask the child to lick the upper lip with the tongue, to offer him to knock them on the teeth, like a horse with hoofs, widen his mouth wider and try to reach the upper teeth with his tongue.
Everyone knows that the brain regions responsible for fine motor skills and speech development are interrelated. That is, the more dexterous the kid is with his hands and fingers, the less problems he has with speech.
There are simple exercises for speech therapy classes, teaching the pronunciation of whistling sounds ("c", "z"), as well as hissing ("w", "w", "h" and "uh"). In addition, problems with "p" and "l" sounds are common, but it can also be adjusted independently at home. While engaged, the child must be planted, placing a mirror for self-control in front of him. Home speech therapy classes "p" can not be "put", this sound is considered to be one of the most complex and usually requires the intervention of a specialist.
Examples of exercises
- Exercise "Fist". Ask the baby to close his teeth, pull his lips as far as he can. Make sure that the lower lip remains fixed while lifting the tongue. Exercise should be repeated 3 to 5 times.
- Exercise "Calyx". Open your mouth wider, stick out your tongue and try to give it a cup shape, lifting the tip and edges. While you are counting up to a certain number, let the child try to keep his tongue in such a position. Exercise is also repeated 3 to 5 times.
- Exercise "Painter". Smile, then open your mouth. After that, the tip of the tongue, like a brush, "paint" the sky from the inside.
- "Drummer". Quickly hit the tip of the tongue behind the upper row of teeth, keeping the mouth open. Another thing - to remove the tip of the tongue alternately for the upper and lower teeth. The exercise is done by counting.
- "We're eating jam." Smile, half-open mouth. Widely lick the upper lip, watching the immobility of the lower jaw.
After completing the exercises, go to the repetition of words containing problem sounds. You can prepare cards with them in advance. The sound over which the work is going on should be repeated at first separately several times (from 7 to 10), then in words. It is very useful to pick up tongue twisters with the right words, their pronunciation significantly speeds up the correction of shortcomings.
Where do speech disorders come from?
Defects of speech can appear in an adult - due to a serious operation, a traumatic injury or a serious emotional experience. Such may be the loss or death of a loved one, divorce, serious financial troubles. Speech deficiencies also arise when the main organs associated with soundproofing are injured - the tongue, teeth, lips, ligaments and muscles of the larynx, and also the palate.
This happens in the case when there is damage to the center located in the cerebral cortex and is responsible for our speech. Even chronic emotional stress can cause speech problems.
Normal speech means the pronunciation of all, without exception, letters of the language distinctly and clearly. This speech must be rhythmic and smooth. If the speaker's words are difficult to make out, it certainly goes about the violation. Adults and children with speech impairment share the same types of speech deficiencies. These include dumbness, stuttering, lisping, lack of correct pronunciation of individual sounds and much more.
Types of speech pathologies
The most widespread of these are:
- Aphonia. This term is understood as broken phonation (i.e., incorrect sound production). Developed aphonia (or dysphonia) as a result of changes in the speech apparatus, which are pathological in nature.
- Dyslalia call phonetic speech defects of an adult or a child with hearing loss and grammatically correct speech.
- Stuttering - the kind of disorder that occurs in the case of convulsive reduction of muscles related to the voice apparatus. It is detected as a violation of the rate of speech, its rhythm and dimensionality.
- Another violation that manifests itself in an abnormally slow speech rate is calledbradylia .
- Opposite to him (when a person speaks too quickly) -tachilia .
- Rinolalia - the type of speech pathology associated with a violation of the anatomical nature of the organs forming the speech apparatus. It appears in a distorted sounding and voice timbre.
- Dysatria - type of disturbance, when nerve endings that function to connect the cerebral cortex to the speech apparatus are not enough.
- Aphasia refers to the total or partial loss of speech that occurs as a consequence of the damage to the central nervous system.
- If the speech of the child or adult is underdeveloped, which is often the case with lesions of the cerebral cortex, it is aboutalalia .
Experts will help you
Various factors can serve as the reasons for these anomalies. These are congenital defects such as nezarascheniya sky or upper lip, anomalous bite, incorrectly formed jaws, defects of the lips, tongue or teeth. Acquired violations are in cases of ENT diseases or CNS. Violations can be either permanent or temporary.
The peculiarity of young children is that each of them has a strictly individual phenomenon, such as the development of speech. Logopedic classes are held in each kindergarten - not only in a specialized school.
If your child is sent to speech therapy classes, you should not refuse - they will not bring any harm to the child, and the benefits will be obvious.
For children 3-4 years of speech therapy there are two forms - individual or group. Classes one-on-one with a specialist (individual) are most effective. In turn, working in a group, the baby feels more comfortable and relaxed.
Individual speech therapy lesson
What are the lessons of speech development? Usually they take place in the form of simple games and events. Kids often do not understand that they are doing some purposeful work. They play with a speech therapist, have fun and have fun.
On an individual logopedic occupation, the child is usually sent, when the violation consists in improper pronunciation of any particular sounds. With the help of specially selected games and exercises, the speech therapist corrects the defect. If the baby stutters, the already mentioned exercises for the language (as well as others) are combined with teaching the skill to correctly distribute the breath.
Singing songs, the child is trained to breathe properly, and the stuttering disappears. Gradually, children learn to control their own breathing, and the better the skill is learned, the more likely it will be to get rid of stuttering once and for all.
Group logopedic classes (otherwise called frontal) are conducted among children with various deviations in the development of speech. These include not only the violation of sound and hearing problems. For example, a baby can not distinguish between twin sounds. Other problems of the same series - violation of speech grammar, the lack of communication between words spoken.
Groups for classes are selected in the number of 6-8 people of the same age who have similar speech problems. The plans of speech therapy classes contain a common goal - to expand the vocabulary and improve the phonemic hearing. Children are purposefully trained in oral speech, are engaged in practical development of lessons learned in individual lessons. Most of the time, most children are engaged both in the group and individually.
Speech therapy class on the theme "Autumn"
Let's consider, how it is possible to construct correctional employment with children, using the certain subjects, for example seasons. Let us have an "autumn" lesson. It is good to spend it in September or October, decorating the room with yellow leaves.
At the lesson of speech therapist, using themes of autumn and natural phenomena, expands and activates vocabulary on the topic, teaches children by pictures to first make separate proposals, and then from them - a coherent story. Along the way, children fix the skills of the answer with a complete sentence and the coordination of speech and movements.
Logopedic lesson on the theme "Autumn" solves the problem of corrective-developing plan - improving fine motor skills with finger surgery, developing memory, thinking through exercises and games. Children learn poems of Russian poets about the fall, listen to music "Sounds of the autumn forest", list the signs of autumn weather, guess riddles on the "autumn" theme.
Kids collect bouquets of leaves, pinching their fingers in the cams (fine motor skills), blowing on leaves, depicting the autumn wind (respiratory gymnastics).
We continue at home
Those skills that give a speech therapist, must be worked out and fixed in the family, at home. For this purpose, specialists conduct explanatory work with their parents, give the most detailed recommendations for building home classes.
Much here depends on the responsible approach of the parents to solve the problem. If the mother or father is not lazy regularly allocate a few minutes a day to the development of the child's speech, then the success will not keep you waiting. The most important task of parents at the same time is to help the child in gaining a sense of confidence in the fight against fear of communication and speaking in public.
Future mothers and fathers should encourage the child. Even the smallest success should be appreciated. As a result, the self-esteem of the baby is growing, there is an incentive for further achievements.
At the same time, one should not be too zealous and in principle force the child to constantly use only properly arranged words and phrases. This will lead to unnecessary tension, can discourage the child from the desire to engage. Let him remain a child. We remind you once again - speech therapy sessions with a child of 3-4 years should be built exclusively in the form of a game!
With the baby exercises should be carried out unobtrusively, not focusing on existing problems. If, as a result, the baby is in a frustrated or depressed state, such training will not succeed. You will not achieve anything except a closed and aggressive reaction.
In the intervals between classes, let him speak still with mistakes that can disappear spontaneously. One day parents will be surprised and happy to find that the kid himself is trying to control the correctness of speech.
For the development of fine motor skills, it is useful to massage the child every finger, bend and unbend them, play board games. Often, let the baby go through the croup or fiddle in the sand. At home, any loose material is suitable. Do not forget about articulatory gymnastics. As much as possible pay attention to reading, learn with the kid simple songs and rhymes.