Speech therapy sessions with children of 3-4 years: the features of the
Children learn to speak with adults and speak in the first year of life, but not always clear and competent pronunciation is achieved and by five years. Often kindergartens, where a child among peers learns to speak more intensely and sharply increases the vocabulary, knowledge and understanding, become involuntary participants in the process of active speaking of the baby. However, there is no doubt that the pace of technology development and knowledge of children about household appliances, computer devices often give odds to adults, but speech skills are left far behind. And by the age of four to five years, a child is sometimes not only able to correctly pronounce sounds, but also to formulate a thought.
The common opinion of pediatricians, children's psychologists and speech therapists-defectologists is the same: the child should be limited to access to computer games and, if possible, to substitute for games in the fresh air, didactic materials and developing games: lotto, dominoes, mosaics, drawing, modeling, e. Attention to the child should be given constantly, whenever possible, encourage emotions of delight, joy, praise every new achievement in correct pronunciation and constantly train the muscles of the palate, tongue, lips and throat.
Causes of speech disorders
If a child speaks less than twenty simple words a year, you need to pay attention to how the family communicates with the younger ones, what kind of general psychological background in the family, the relationships of family members and the ways of raising children.
If the mental state of the child is good in the opinion of the psychologist, hearing and intelligence are normal, speech therapy sessions with children 3-4 years will correct the pronunciation and will allow the child to learn to speak correctly faster.
Sometimes, for a number of reasons of neurological, physical or mental nature, speech disturbances are poured into a certain form.
This can be caused by the poverty of the vocabulary, the mispronunciation of words, confusion in the endings or the rearrangement of the syllables of the word, there may be manifestations in the pace of speech.
Types of violations in the speech development of the child
Speech therapists divide speech disorders into phonetic-phonemic underdevelopment of speech (when vowels are swallowed, consonants hard or soft are not pronounced, etc.), general underdevelopment of speech and certain types of speech problems:
- Rinolalia and some other species, subtypes of disorders.
How to determine speech impairment
As a rule, in early childhood, babies do not develop equally, so it is difficult to classify any disorder with external common signs of health. When attentive to a small member of the family, violations can be noticed by parents and older children.
Logopaedic classes with children begin 3-4 years, when a certain vocabulary is normally formed, and the child actively communicates or is forced to strive to explain his needs and desires verbally, and not by gesticulation. Psychologists mark this age also because personal growth simultaneously with new forms of thinking and self-identification of the child forces to be interested in the new, to aspire to dialogue, especially to dialogue with contemporaries. Due to the fact that children themselves teach each other more clearly in game and natural form, and vocabulary changes, and accordingly, the speech of the child in 3-4 years.
Test of the speech therapist for parents - a signal to actions
Test tasks given by speech therapists allow to determine the level of violations or to reveal the absence of violations in the child. Often, some time devoted to pursuits, carries the kid, he is involved with interest in the performance of tasks and after a short time begins to speak much better and more correctly. If speech disorders are still detected, parents should be aware that they are often amenable to correction, provided that activities and exercises with the child are conducted not only in the group with a defectologist, speech therapist, but also at home.
What includes a speech therapy session
During the psychological and speech therapy classes for children of 3-4 years, the child's education is simultaneously conducted not only in the speech sense, because the associated processes of brain activity, speech functions, and motor skills in the complex should be conducted in different directions:
- you need to develop a common, fine motor skills (modeling, drawing, rolling, clapping, compression and unclenching of the cams, finger patching, lacing, buttoning and unfastening of the buttons will help here);
- it is equally important to develop and articulatory motor skills (regular gymnastics for the muscles of the tongue, lips, larynx and palate);
- correcting the sound reproduction, correct setting of sounds by a speech therapist;
- correction of mistakes in diction and training in rhythm, smoothness of speech and diction.
Than logopedic exercises are useful
The description of the speech therapy session for children of 3-4 years includes compulsory articulatory gymnastics for toning and spasm of muscles, dynamic and static exercises for the tongue, corners of the lips, muscles of the lower jaw, cheeks, finger gymnastics and fine motor skills, sometimes reflexotherapy massage. During corrective activities, children learn spatial representations, develop motor skills and memory, visual images, attention, thinking and observation. Sensory functions are developing, constructive thinking is practiced, muscle tone is gradually normalized.
The psychological aspect of working with a child
The peculiarities of speech therapy sessions with children of 3-4 years can relate to the psychological component, often children with speech disorders because of opposing oneself to those who speak well, complex or lock themselves up. The teacher's task is to arrange the child, to interest and make him overcome the barriers created by himself with respect to his own particularity. The reverse side can consist in opposing oneself in a conflict way, indiscipline, capriciousness, refusal to work together. In this case, individual lessons for the speech therapist for children of 3-4 years are recommended - an especially special child alone is easier to convince and interest when an adult becomes a kid friend and assistant, able to see the diligence for whims.
General development classes
Physical education, while not included in the complex of exercises with a speech therapist, is still important, gymnastics develops the right breathing tact, which, in turn, contributes to better saturation of the brain with oxygen and good circulation of blood flow. Speech therapy sessions with children of 3-4 years are often accompanied by the development of fine motor skills with improvised means in the form of puzzles, mosaics, origami, designer, drawing and games aimed at the development of mnemonic memory. In addition, the memory is trained by riddles in verse form, tongue twisters and poems on a fun theme. Of course, and training is carried out in a game form, otherwise the kid can flatly refuse to perform exercises and gymnastics. The task of the speech therapist and parents is to participate in the formation of the correct speech of the child as fully as possible, because the earlier violations are noticed, the greater the chances of eradicating them and helping the child communicate beautifully and correctly, which means becoming a competent and pleasant interlocutor.
Speech therapy sessions with children of 3-4 years include gymnastics of chewing-articulatory, mimic-articulatory muscles, gymnastics of the lips and cheeks, tongue, arthritic area, if necessary, a logopedic massage (classical, dotted), including vibrating stroking, kneading, stretching.