Who is Maria Montessori? The Montessori method in education
More than a hundred years of philosophy and methods of Maria Montessori, the method of its work does not lose relevance to this day. The effectiveness of educational system is confirmed by the results of scientific research. Kindergartens and schools who work on this system, can be found all over the world. Inmates of institutions surprise you with their intellectual and creative abilities and also good manners.
Pedagogy the Montessori method of educating children based on trust, freedom and opportunity to Express themselves. The key message of the educational system: "Help me to do it myself".
The first always and everywhere
Maria Montessori born August 31 1870 in the Italian town of Chiaravalle. In the family she was the only and beloved child. Maria's father, Alessandro Montessori, was a family of Italian nobility. Mother's name was Renilde. In girlhood she bore the name of Stoppani – ancient family, whose members were very educated people. Mother's brother, Antonio Stopani, for his great contribution to science was awarded the monument in Milan. At that time Renilda was sufficiently educated lady, but unfortunately she was destined to become a homemaker and nothing more. All her life she has helped her daughter as best they could, tried to invest in her love of knowledge and independence.
When Maria was 12, her family moved to Rome to have the girls have the opportunity to get a better education. Very good she has given to science and mathematics. Despite all the obstacles, purposeful girl enrolled in a technical school for boys, and later – medical faculty of the University of Rome. After graduation, she became the first female physician and surgeon in Italy.
Genius, activist and simply beautiful
In his student years Maria has actively fought for women's rights. She was chosen a delegate to the International Congress of women held in Berlin. She knew how to get to listen and hear, possessed great oratory skills. However, she has always looked great, and she did not rebound from the fans.
In 1896 she began working as a teaching assistant at the University clinic in Rome under the auspices of the Santi de Santes. There he met his beloved Giuseppe Montesano. Personal life Italian women did not work. She had to make a difficult choice between feelings and science. She chose the latter. When he realized that she was pregnant, fearing the condemnation of the Catholic environment, he decided immediately after birth, send a child with a nanny in a village near Rome. There is a myth that Mary left her son to deal with other people's children, but in fact it is not.
Most children at that time were educated by Tutors, and the Italian did not do anything contrary to the traditions. The only difference was that the kid lived with a host family. Maria spent son time on the weekends more than the average mother at the time. Montessori introduced the son to society, only when he was 15 years old. Mario helped and supported by his mother, became her successor, and after her death made a huge contribution to the pedagogy of Maria Montessori.
Work with children
In the clinic it is the first meeting with kids who had limited opportunities. At that time such children were not treated and nothing is taught simply considered idiots and tried to protect them from the society. After eating, the kids were crawling on the bare floor and collected crumbs of bread, and then spit balls out of it. The situation, in which there were sick children around the clock, did not encourage and does not encourage beneficial activities. Mary long watched them and draw conclusions, which became the starting point of the emergence of the pedagogical system created by Montessori.
The method was to provide children with as patients and healthy educational environment. Crumbs you need to give a space in which is concentrated all the world's knowledge. For clarity, they are presented through the standards of the greatest achievements of mankind. Every kid needs to go the way of the civilized world before school age. Montessori pedagogical system is built depending on the needs (sensitive periods) in the development of the child.
Development of the child through Montessori method is in accordance with the time period, in which children easily and naturally attain certain skills and knowledge. This is the essence of the sensitive period. Its peculiarity is that it happens once in a lifetime and is irrevocable, regardless of whether managed child to use it or not. For example, from age 0 to six years is sensory development and speech formation. Social skills arise and are fixed between 2 to 6 years. To accustom the child to cleanliness and order have up to 3 years.
Other sensitive periods can be found in the writings of the Italian teacher-innovator. Parents and teachers are unable to influence the occurrence and duration of such periods. However, they need to create for the child an environment of didactic materials or so-called zone of proximal development.
The adult world – the land of giants for kids
The Montessori teacher first presented the theory that children are inconvenient to live in an adult world. Every kid feels there like a midget in the land of Gulliver. Our world is for a child of chaos, where the little man has no rights a personal and comfortable space. Giants-adults are often cruel, unfair and impatient. The punishment may follow a simple mistake, such as broken vase, but the kid just exploring the world and entitled to mistakes.
The teacher wanted to inform parents and teachers that children are not toys in their hands. You need to take into account their interests and needs. How to make a baby, it is necessary to know and to understand the baby for him to watch. And this is possible only with the child who was given freedom. The child seated at the Desk, nothing but a quick loss of interest, you will not see. To observe how a person appears, only when a little something is truly passionate about.
Discipline and freedom at the same time
Under the concept of freedom in the writings of the Italian teacher not to be understood as permissiveness, and independence of the child from the will of the adult. And this can be achieved by teaching kids self-serve and learn new things without the help of elders.
The method Maria Montessori brief:
- Every kid chooses the activity. The child learns to listen to your inner self, to understand that he is interested in at this moment.
- Minimize the assistance of an adult. It should be present only in cases, if the kid asks about it. Independence makes the child more confident in their abilities, teaches to adequately assess achievement.
- Children grow and learn in the environment. Didactic material should be freely available to every child. There are rules that must be respected by all.
- Teaching children of different ages in one group. It's good for the older kids, and younger. Small pupils stretch for the older, bigger guys help the crumbs.
- The training material is designed so that the child can independently find and correct their mistakes.
- There is no best and worst students. The child's achievements can only be compared with previous results.
Regardless of whether you use the Montessori method at home or in educational institutions, everywhere there are the same rules:
- Job – clean up that mess.
- To work with the material on an individual Mat.
- In the class not to make noise, move quietly. Children immediately learn to silently carry the chairs.
- A rule of respectful coexistence, your freedom ends where begins the private space of another.
Disadvantages of the system
Followers of the pedagogical system remarked on the great benefits of the Montessori method. Reviews about the pitfalls you can meet much less frequently.
A childhood without fairy tales. Dr. Montessori believed that fairy tales distort the perception of reality. Because Gingerbread can't run away, but animals can't talk human language. The system focuses on logic and rationality, and develops the left hemisphere, the child himself may draw conclusions, make decisions and take responsibility for the actions. Read books method is not prohibited, but are advised to give preference to stories with real plots.
No prohibitions. The education method Montessori does not provide for prohibitions and penalties. In the kindergarten or school the child may not listen to the teacher, eat from other people's plates, walking around the room during class, running in the hallway. The teacher has no right to make his comments, because the child must understand that the mess is bad that you cannot hurt other children. The teacher can only observe what is happening. Domestic psychologists do not recommend to use in front of the school the Montessori method. Preschool education in our country must include the concept of obedience. Children after the end of the garden, this innovative program is reluctant to take to school with classical education system. Future students are advised to "re-educate" in a regular kindergarten, because the student may simply not sit still in class. He has no idea what to listen to teachers.
Great contribution to the education of the children Dr. Montessori. The method, which she developed, provides for the division of space, where children are engaged, in the zone. There are only five. The child chooses the area for lessons and spent as much time as he pleases.
- Area practical activities. There are household items that adults deal with every day. Baby under the supervision of the teacher can to water the flowers, wash, iron a real iron, to sew. The education method Montessori provides self-service. The wards take turns setting the table, cleaning up after dinner, wash and wipe the dishes.
- The touch-sensitive area. Here is the material, which teaches to identify characteristics of objects: color, shape, size, weight.
- The language area. Here is didactic material for teaching reading and writing.
- Area of mathematics. Here the baby learns numbers, the number of items, counting, math examples. Work with the "Golden material".
- The space area. Here are the maps, globes, material for the study of weather phenomena and everything that introduces children to the world around you.
Activities for preschoolers using the Montessori method lie in working with certain materials. Let's look at them.
- Frame with fasteners. On it are hooks, buttons, zippers, laces. Using this simulator, the child learns to dress themselves.
- The brown stairs. Helps children to define the concepts of big-small, thick-thin.
- Pink tower. Reminiscent of children's pyramid. Teaches how to compare items to each other in size.
- Red rod. The child gets acquainted with the concepts of "longer", "shorter".
- Letters of paper with the effect of velvet, or decorative sand.
- The metal inlay in the form of various geometric shapes are used for preparing hands to the letter.
- Red-blue rods. Includes 10 rods. Manipulating them, the child learns basic account and mathematical operations.
- A box of spindles.
- Geometric bodies.
Recommendations for parents who want to apply the Montessori method at home:
- Create a son or daughter a comfortable living environment. The child must be able to climb or peel yourself out of bed to wash without assistance, to hang your things in the closet or on hooks, matching him in stature.
- Provide opportunities to help adults with household chores. Teach to wash cups, buy a small dustpan and broom allow me to water the flowers. The kid should know that he has household duties. It is clearly prescribed in the program Dr. Montessori.
- The method is based on the freedom of action. Do not disturb the child.
- Divide children's room into zones according to the methodology. Provide didactic materials for classes. They're quite expensive, so parents should think about what they can do with their hands. Today you can find lots of ideas and workshops for the production of training materials.
The system does not offer children activities in patterns, and simply pushes the child to act and provides a large variety of materials.
A school that uses the teaching method of Maria Montessori, can be compared to a small separate planet kids, which has its rules and there is no space of permissiveness. But kids learn to understand their emotions and feelings, gain skills and solve everyday problems. No one and nothing prevents to develop the abilities of the little man. The system does not offer children activities in patterns, and simply pushes the child to act and provides a large variety of materials.