Who is Maria Montessori? Montessori Method in Education
For more than a hundred years, the philosophy and achievements of Maria Montessori have been fulfilled, the method of her work has not lost relevance to this day. The effectiveness of the pedagogical system is confirmed by the results of scientific research. Gardens and schools that work on this system can be found all over the world. Pupils of institutions are surprised with their intellectual and creative abilities, as well as good manners.
Pedagogy Montessori - a method of raising children, based on trust, freedom and the opportunity to prove themselves. The key message of the pedagogical system: "Help me do this myself."
The first always and in everything
Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870 in the Italian city of Chiaravalle. In the family she was the only and most beloved child. The father of Mary, Alessandro Montessori, resembled the family of the Italian nobility. His mother's name was Renilde. In her maiden name she bore the surname Stoppani - an ancient family, whose representatives were very educated people. The mother's brother, Antonio Stopani, was awarded a monument in Milan for his great contribution to science. At the time, Renilde was a fairly educated lady, but, unfortunately, she was destined for the fate of the keeper of the home and no more. Throughout her life she helped her daughter as best she could, trying to put her love of knowledge and independence into her.
When Mary turned 12, her family moved to Rome, so that the girl could get a better education. She was especially good at natural science and mathematics. Despite all obstacles, the goal-oriented girl entered the technical school for young men, and later - at the medical faculty of the University of Rome. After graduation, she becomes the first female therapist and surgeon in Italy.
Clever, activist and just beautiful
In her student years Maria actively fought for the rights of women. She was elected delegate of the International Congress of Women, which was held in Berlin. The girl knew how to make people listen and hear, and she was excellent in speaking skills. With all this, she always looked great, and she did not have a rebuff from the fans.
In 1896, she began working as an assistant at the University Clinic of Rome under the auspices of Santee de Santes. There she met her lover Giuseppe Montesano. Italian life did not work out. She had to make a difficult choice between feelings and science. She chose the second. When I realized that I was pregnant, then, frightened by the condemnation of the Catholic environment, I decided to send a child with a nanny to a village near Rome immediately after the birth. There is a myth that Maria left her son to study with other people's children, but in fact it is not.
Most of the children at that time were brought up by the tutors, and the Italian did nothing wrong with the traditions. The only difference was that the kid lived with the host family. Maria spent more time with her son at the weekend than the average mother of that time. Montessori introduced her son to society only when he was 15 years old. Mario all his life helped and supported the mother, became her successor and after her death made a huge contribution to the pedagogical method of M. Montessori.
Work with children
In the clinic, her first meeting with the kids takes place, which had limited opportunities. At that time, these children were not treated and nothing was taught, they were simply considered idiots and tried to protect them from society. After eating, the children crawled on the bare floor and collected crumbs from the bread, and then spat with balls from it. The environment in which sick children were around the clock, did not contribute to development and did not encourage to useful activities. Maria watched them for a long time and made conclusions, which became the starting point for the appearance of the pedagogical system created by Montessori.
The essence of the method was to provide children, both sick and healthy, with a developing environment. Crows need to be given a space in which all world knowledge is concentrated. For clarity, they are represented through the standards of the main achievements of mankind. Every kid must go to the civilized world as early as the preschool age. The pedagogical system of Montessori is built according to the needs (sensitive periods) in the development of the child.
The development of the child by the method of Montessori occurs in accordance with the time intervals in which children simply and naturally comprehend certain skills and knowledge. This is the essence of the sensitive period. Its peculiarity is that it happens once in a lifetime and passes irrevocably, regardless of whether the child has had time to use it or not. For example, between the ages of 0 and 6 years, sensory development and speech formation takes place. Social skills arise and are fixed in the period from 2 to 6 years. To teach the baby to clean and order it takes up to 3 years.
Other sensitive periods can be found in the works of the Italian teacher-innovator. Parents and teachers can not influence the occurrence and duration of such periods. However, they must create for the child a medium of didactic materials or a so-called zone of proximal development.
The world of adults is a country of giants for children
The teacher of Montessori first introduced the theory that it is inconvenient for children to live in the adult world. Every kid feels there, like a Lilliputian in Gulliver's country. Our world is a complete chaos for a child, where a small person does not have rights and personal comfortable space. Adult giants are often cruel, unfair and impatient. Punishment can follow a simple oversight, for example a broken vase, and after all the kid simply studies the world around him and has the right to make mistakes.
The teacher wanted to inform parents and teachers that children are not toys in their hands. Their interests and needs must be taken into account. To raise a crumb, you need to know it, but to understand the baby, it should be observed. And this is only possible with the child who was given freedom. Sitting the child at the desk, nothing, except for the rapid loss of interest, you will not see. Observe how the personality manifests itself, it is possible only when the kid is something really passionate about.
Discipline and freedom at the same time
Under the notion of freedom in the works of the Italian teacher, one should understand not permissiveness, but the independence of the child from the will of an adult. And this can be achieved by teaching the kids to self-service and learn new without the help of elders.
The method of Maria Montessori succinctly:
- Each kid chooses his own type of activity. The child learns to listen to his inner self, to understand what is interesting to him at this moment.
- Minimizing the assistance of an adult. She should be present only in cases when the baby himself asks for it. Self-reliance makes the child more confident in their abilities, teaches to adequately assess personal achievements.
- Children grow up and learn in a specially organized environment. The didactic material should be freely available for each child. There are rules that all must observe.
- Teaching children of different ages in the same group. This is good for both older guys and younger ones. Little pupils are reaching for the elders, and the big guys are helping the crumbs.
- The teaching material is designed so that the child can independently find and correct his mistakes.
- There are no better or worse students. The child's achievements can only be compared with previous results.
Regardless of whether the Montessori method is used at home or in educational institutions, the same rules apply everywhere:
- Worked - tidy up.
- Work with the material takes place on an individual rug.
- In the classroom you can not make noise, move quietly. The children are immediately taught to carry silks silently.
- The rule of respectful coexistence: your freedom ends where the personal space of another begins.
Cons of the system
The followers of the pedagogical system noted the enormous benefits that the Montessori method brings. Reviews about the pitfalls can be found much less often.
Childhood without a fairy tale. Dr. Montessori believed that fairy tales distort the notion of reality. After all, Kolobok can not run away, and animals can not talk in human language. The system emphasizes logic and rationality, develops the left hemisphere, so that the child can draw conclusions, make decisions and take responsibility for actions. Read the book methodology does not prohibit, but advises to give preference to stories with real stories.
There are no prohibitions. Education Montessori method does not provide for bans and penalties. In a kindergarten or a school, a child may not listen to the tutor, eat from other people's plates, walk around the office during classes, and run along the corridor. The teacher has no right to make comments to him, because the child must himself understand that the mess is bad, that you can not offend other children. The teacher can only observe what is happening. Domestic psychologists do not recommend the Montessori method before the school. Pre-school education in our country should include the notion of obedience. Children after the end of the garden on an innovative program are reluctantly taken to school with a classical education system. Future schoolchildren are advised to "re-educate" in a regular kindergarten, because a student may simply not sit out at the lesson. He does not suspect that you need to listen to the teacher.
Dr. Montessori contributed greatly to the upbringing of children. The method, which she developed, provides for dividing the space where children are engaged in zones. There are only five of them. The kid himself chooses a zone for employment and spends as much time in it as he likes.
- Practical area. Here are household items, with which adults deal every day. The baby, under the supervision of a teacher, can water flowers, wash, iron with real iron, sew. Education by the method of Montessori provides for self-service. Wards in turn, set the table, clean after dinner, wash and wipe the dishes.
- Sensory zone. Here is the material that teaches you to determine the characteristics of objects: color, shape, size, weight.
- Language zone. Here is the didactic material for teaching writing and reading.
- The zone of mathematics. Here the kid is studying the figures, the number of objects, the account, mathematical examples. We are working with "gold material".
- Space area. Here are maps, globes, material for studying weather phenomena and everything that introduces children to the world around them.
Classes for preschoolers using the Montessori method consist in working with certain materials. Let's consider them.
- Frame with fasteners. On it there are hooks, buttons, zippers, shoelaces. With the help of such a simulator the child learns to dress independently.
- Brown staircase. Helps children to decide on the concepts of big-small, thick-thin.
- The pink tower. Reminds the children's pyramid. He learns to compare objects among themselves in size.
- Red bars. The child gets acquainted with the concepts "longer", "shorter".
- Letters made of paper with the effect of velvet or decorative sand.
- Metal tabs in the form of a variety of geometric shapes are used to prepare the hand for writing.
- Red and blue bars. There are 10 bars in the set. Manipulating them, the child learns an elementary account and mathematical operations.
- Box with spindles.
- Geometric bodies.
Education at home
Recommendations for parents who want to apply the Montessori method at home:
- Create a comfortable environment for your son or daughter. The child should be able to climb or climb down on his own from the bed, wash himself unaided, hang his things in a closet or on hooks that fit his height.
- Give the child the opportunity to help adults in the household. Teach to wash cups, buy a small scoop and a broom, allow watering flowers. The kid should know that he has household duties. This is clearly prescribed in his program, Dr. Montessori.
- The method is based on freedom of action. Do not disturb the child.
- Divide the children's room into zones according to the method. Provide the child with didactic materials for classes. They are quite expensive, so parents should think about what they can do with their own hands. To date, you can find a lot of ideas and master classes on the production of teaching materials.
The system does not offer children a template activity, but simply pushes the child to action and provides a large selection of materials.
The educational institution that uses the pedagogical method of Maria Montessori can be compared with a small separate planet of children, where there are established orders and there is no place for permissiveness. But at the same time the kids learn to understand their emotions and feelings, acquire the skills of independence and solve everyday problems. Nobody and nothing prevents the development of the abilities of a small person. The system does not offer children a template activity, but simply pushes the child to action and provides a large selection of materials.