Correction-developing lesson for preschool children and younger schoolchildren
The steady increase in the number of children demanding timely intervention in their development system by teachers and child psychologists, makes adjustments to the educational process of pre-school and school educational institutions. In the schedule of classes and lessons there is a new form of educational activity called corrective-developing occupation.
Organization of a special approach to the smallest
Problems of some preschoolers become visible already from the moment they enter the children's educational institution. Against the background of their peers such babies are distinguished by insufficient formation of certain functions and skills. In the case when it comes to younger preschoolers, the child is required, in the main, to intensively monitor the psychologist. Specificity of development of small children due to its wave form does not give an unambiguous real picture of the level of mental development of the baby. Individual classes with younger preschoolers and children of early age should be planned and conducted in the direction of improving the adaptation of the child to the conditions of the educational institution.
Place of the individual plan in the kindergarten training schedule
A directional system of individual studies, as a rule, is included in the active phase among specialists in the middle and older preschool period. The so-called "problem children" already require intervention and correction of developmental shortcomings, which is taken into account by psychologists, making up a summary of the correctional-developing session. Experts build work based on previously identified problems of the child. At the preschool age, according to statistics, shortcomings are revealed, first of all, in the level of speech development, psycho-speech development, emotional-volitional disorders, the pathology of the formation of the level of individual mental processes. A child psychologist or rehabilitation specialist after a detailed examination determines the correctional route and plans correction-development activities with children.
Correcting the shortcomings of the child's intellectual development
Educators during the educational process from time to time pay attention to children who differ from the general mass of their peers in that they either are not absolutely interested in what is happening in the class, or do not keep up with other children, but there are also those who try, but to no avail. Psychologists believe that the problem of such babies in the insufficient level of intellectual development, which occurs due to a variety of reasons. Determine the causes and disadvantages themselves - the priority task of specialists in the psychological service and defectologists. Based on the diagnostic examination conducted, the specialists build corrective action and develop a system of studies with children. Correction and development classes for preschool children are conducted with a subgroup and individually, depending on the problem identified. In subgroups, several children are combined with one developmental problem. Classes with children with shortcomings in intellectual development are held 1-2 times a week, the duration of classes should not exceed the established time limits.
Recommendations of specialists in planning the correction of deficiencies in the cognitive sphere
Psycho-hygienic bases of training, developed by children's psychologists, recommend planning a correction-developing lesson for younger schoolchildren in the first half of the day, from 10.00 to 12.00. This time is considered the most productive for stimulating the intellectual functions of the brain, as well as for intensified employment by mental labor. In this case, it is also necessary to take into account the day of the week, allocated for corrective activities. Monday is absolutely not suitable for increased mental loads, since this day is considered the day of working out, and the potential for brain activity is small. On Tuesday and Wednesday, brain activity stabilizes, so the classes held these days are highly productive. Thursday, according to the teacher-innovator Shatalov, - the so-called "energy hole". Correction-developing occupation to compensate for deficiencies in the intellectual sphere for this day is not planned and conducted categorically. Accordingly, Friday is characterized by a new rise in productive brain activity and is suitable for mental exercises. Therefore, the correct choice for correcting the shortcomings of intellectual functions in children will be Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday. In the event that the child, due to its features, classes are required daily, on Monday and Thursday, simple game exercises should be conducted.
Correcting the shortcomings of the emotional-volitional sphere
At least there are violations in the emotional-volitional sphere of preschool children. It manifests itself in behavioral deviations, inability to independently regulate their volitional impulses and manage emotions. Such children are considered too active, restless, naughty, snooty, sometimes aggressive. Such a problem also requires the intervention of children's specialists, despite the fact that most parents deny obvious violations and refuse the help of a psychologist, believing that such manifestations eventually pass by themselves. Unfortunately, without qualified assistance, they are only aggravated, go over in time to difficult-to-learn and deviant manifestations. Correction and development classes for preschool children with emotional and volitional disorders are also conducted twice a week. In addition to specialists, efforts to correct behavioral manifestations are also directed by the group's educators, acting in accordance with the recommendations of the psychological service specialists.
Recommendations of specialists in the planning of work with children with deviant behavior
To correct behavioral negative manifestations of intense mental stress is not required, therefore, to correct the deviant behavior can be any day of the week, both in the first and second half of the day. The first corrective measures with such preschoolers will be individual sessions. Parallel influence is rendered by the group teacher in the collective of the toddlers, the jointly adjusted actions accelerate the manifestation of positive dynamics. After carrying out the necessary course of individual interactions between the psychologist and the child, the specialist decides when the child is ready to consolidate the skills of self-control and self-regulation in the peer group. Further, the correction-developing occupation is planned taking into account the work with a group of children, special attention is paid to the constructive socialization of the child with deviations in behavior. The teacher's joint work with the psychologist continues until the child learns to regulate behavioral reactions on his own.
Accounting for age-specific features when planning corrective actions
Psychological characteristics of a child of a certain age category should be taken into account at the moment when a correction-developing lesson is planned for younger schoolchildren and preschool children. The leading activity of kids of this age is gaming. Teachers compulsorily include in their lessons playing moments and elements. Corrective measures are also built on this principle, while the plan of classes is drawn up in advance. Thematic planning involves a step-by-step drawing up of a schedule of classes with the indication of subjects. The expected results of corrective action are necessarily taken into account, for this purpose, reflection or feedback is planned at the end of the session.
Basic principles of rational planning
Given these requirements, the outline of the lesson for preschoolers will be compiled according to the following principle:
- Greeting. Introduction.
- The game moment, the summing up to the main part of the session.
- Correction or developing exercise games.
- Fastening, a game moment.
- Reflection, feedback.
When planning the game moment, psychologists take into account the use of elements of art therapy, sand therapy, fairy-tale therapy, as these psychotherapeutic techniques have long proved their effectiveness in working with children of preschool age. Correction-developing occupation, which includes elements of these methods, is effectively used by children's specialists to work with various pathologies.
Correction work in primary school
Unfortunately, not all the shortcomings of the child's development can be eliminated in a timely manner before the child enters the school. Some children carry their problems from kindergarten to first grade. Therefore, school psychologists, when faced with problem children, organize special support for them in cooperation with the class teacher. The imaginative thinking of the pupil of the junior classes has children for playing activity, therefore the program of correction-developing classes is built taking into account these age features. The principle of constructing separate classes will be about the same as for pre-schoolers, but with expanded opportunities for the child:
- Greeting. Introductory part, message of the topic of the lesson.
- Information message, a game moment.
- Corrective game exercises.
- Anchoring with the use of psychotherapeutic techniques.
- Receiving feedback.
The outline of the lesson for junior students can also include elements of art therapy, skazkoterapii using multimedia technology, color therapy.