Correctional and educational activities for preschoolers and Junior schoolchildren
The steady increase in the number of children requiring early intervention in their development system on the part of educators and child psychologists, making adjustments in the educational process of preschool and school educational institutions. In the schedule of classes and lessons, there is a new form of educational activities called the correctional and educational activities.
The organization of a special approach to the smallest
Problems some preschoolers become visible already from the time of their admission to the children's educational institution. Amid peers these children highlighted the lack of readiness of some functions and skills. In that case, if we are talking about the younger preschoolers, the child is required mainly intensive supervision of a psychologist. The specificity of the development of young children because of its waviness does not give a clear picture of the real level of mental development of the baby. Private lessons with younger preschoolers and children of early age it is expedient to plan and conduct towards improving the child's adaptation to the conditions of the educational institution.
Place an individual plan in the educational schedule of the kindergarten
Directed system of individual lessons, usually included specialists in active phase in the middle and senior primary period. So-called "problem children" already require intervention and correction of defects, and include psychologists, making up the outline of the correctional and developmental activities. Specialists build on previously identified issues of the child. At preschool age, according to statistics, the shortcomings exposed, primarily at the level of speech development, speech development, emotional-volitional disorders, pathology of formation of level of individual mental processes. Child specialist-a psychologist or physiotherapist after a thorough investigation determines the route and correctional planning correctional and developmental activities with children.
Correction of defects of intellectual development of the child
Educators during the educational process from time to time pay attention to children that are different from the General mass of peers that is either absolutely not interested in what is happening in the classroom, or do not have time for the other children, but there are those who try, but to no avail. Psychologists believe that the problem with these kids in the insufficient level of intellectual development, which occurs due to various number of reasons. To determine the reasons and shortcomings of the priority of specialists of the psychological service and speech pathologists. On the basis of the conducted diagnostic examination specialists build rehabilitative effect and develop a system for working with children. Correctional and developing classes for preschoolers are held with the sub-group and individually, depending on the problems identified. In subgroups bring together several children with one developmental problem. Classes for children with deficiencies in intellectual development, are held 1-2 times per week, duration of sessions should not exceed the established time standards.
Recommendations for planning remediation of the cognitive sphere
Psychohygienic bases of training developed by child psychologists, it is recommended to plan remedial and educational activities for younger students during the first half of the day, in the period from 10.00 to 12.00. This time is considered the most productive for stimulating the intellectual functions of the brain, and also for enhanced training in mental work. It should also be considered and day of the week reserved for remedial classes. Monday is not suitable for reinforced mental stress, as this day is the day of the engagement, and the potential brain activity is small. On Tuesday and Wednesday brain activity stabiliziruemost, so the classes taken in those days show a high productivity. Thursday, in the opinion of the teacher-innovator Shatalov, the so — called "energy hole". Correctional and educational activities to remediate shortcomings in the intellectual sphere of the day to plan and conduct it is not recommended. Accordingly, Friday is characterized by the rise of new productive activity in the brain and is suitable for mental training. Therefore, the correct choice for the correction of defects of intellectual function in children will be Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday. In that case, if the baby because of its features classes are required daily, Monday and Thursday should be simple exercises.
Corrective emotional-volitional sphere
Not rarely, and disturbances in the emotional-volitional sphere of children. This is manifested in behavioral abnormalities, inability to regulate their impulses and manage emotions. Such children are considered to be too active, restless, rebellious, cocky, sometimes aggressive. This problem also requires the intervention of pediatric specialists, despite the fact that most parents deny the obvious violations and to refuse the assistance of a psychologist, believing that such symptoms eventually go away. Unfortunately, without professional help, they only worsen pass over time, difficulties in education and deviant manifestations. Correctional and developmental activities for preschool children with disorders of emotional-volitional sphere are also held twice a week. In addition to specialists, the efforts to fix behavioral manifestations are also sent teachers groups in accordance with recommendations of specialists of the psychological service.
The recommendations of the planning professionals working with children with deviant behavior
For the correction of negative behavioral manifestations of intense mental stress is not required, therefore, to carry out the correction of deviant behavior can be any day of the week, as in the first and in the second half of the day. The first corrective measures with these preschoolers will be individual classes. Parallel is the effect of the teacher group in a team of kids together, the revised action accelerates the manifestation of positive dynamics. After the necessary course of individual interaction of the psychologist with the child specialist decides when the baby's ready the skills of self-control and self-regulation to consolidate in the team of peers. Further, correctional and educational activities are planned including work with children, special attention is paid to the constructive socialization of the child with deviations in behavior. The joint work of the teacher with the therapist continues as long as the child learns to regulate behavioral responses independently.
The age-appropriate when planning corrective actions
Psychological features of child specific age categories must be taken into account in the moment when it is planned remedial educational activities for primary school children and preschool children. The leading activity of toddlers this age is games. Teachers must include in their classes the game moments and elements. Corrective measures are also being built according to this principle, the lesson plan is prepared in advance. Thematic planning involves a gradual scheduling of classes, indicating the subject. Must be taken into account the expected results of the intervention, this end of the lesson planned reflection or feedback.
The basic principles of sound planning
Given these requirements, compendium classes for preschoolers will be prepared in the following way:
- Greeting. The introductory part.
- Game time, leading to the main part of the lesson.
- Correctional or educational exercises games.
- The clamping moment of the game.
- Reflection, feedback.
When planning gaming time psychologists take into account the use of elements of art therapy, sand therapy, fairy tale therapy, as these psychotherapeutic methods have proved their effectiveness in working with children of preschool age. Correctional and educational activities, which included the elements of these techniques is effectively used by children's specialists to work with different pathologies.
Remedial work in the elementary school
Unfortunately, not all the shortcomings of the development of the child fails to timely resolve before enrolling the child in school. Some children carry their problems from kindergarten to first grade. So school specialists of the psychological service in the face of troubled kids, give them special support in cooperation with the class teacher. Creative thinking in primary school students has children to gaming activities, so the program of correctional and developing lessons built based on these age differences. The principle of construction of some classes, like classes for preschoolers, but with advanced features for a child:
- Greeting. The introductory part, the message topic.
- Informational message, moment of the game.
- Remedial exercises.
- Fixing with the use of psychotherapeutic techniques.
Compendium classes for younger students can also include elements of art therapy, fairy tale therapy with the use of multimedia technology, color therapy.