Cows dairy breed: breeding
For the average person, not associated with agriculture, cow of any breed is a simple animal. Another thing — the farmers. Those who are engaged in breeding and growing cattle for milk, I know a number of features that determine dairy breed cows. Here are the basic criteria: large udder, an elongated body, underdeveloped muscles.
There are dozens of breeds of cattle. But the biggest demand is for cow milk productivity. The Holstein breed, Yaroslavl, Kholmogory, red steppe and black-spotted are the most common in Russia. And literally each have certain advantages over others. For example, it may be milk fat or the amount. Meat cows dairy breed in terms of quality is slightly inferior to the product obtained from cattle in the other. So do not expect them to expect a large increase in muscle mass.
Combined (or milk and meat) breed of cows different from other types of cattle for its versatility. They have double the productivity. This means that animals have well-developed not only milk but also meat quality. One of them may be more pronounced. Then they are referred either to a milk-meat type or meat and milk. There are quite a lot. Cows dairy and meat: calves, Bestuzhev, brown Swiss, Kostroma and others. I must say that farmers often choose them for cultivation in their farms.
It is considered the most common among the dairy cattle. The population of this breed is, perhaps, the most numerous in the world. Her homeland – the Netherlands, but all acquired productive qualities she was already on the American continent.
The Holstein dairy cattle breed used by breeders for the improvement of other black-and-white stripes of cattle. These animals in Canada and the US improved, achieving maximum fat and abundant yields.
For growing calves, as well as maintenance and feeding of cows using a special technology, the purpose of which was the creation of a new, more modernized dairy types of cattle. Thus, in these countries, a large number of black-motley cattle that differs from the original material.
It is believed that improved dairy cows of Holstein breed was obtained by crossing, and by pure breeding. So animals are good milk productivity, large size and capacity of udder. It is not surprising that among cows of this breed are quite a lot of recordists for the yield of milk and not only.
The live weight of bulls is from 950 to 1200, and cows up to 700 lbs. Calves are born weighing up to 47 kg, heifers – 5 kg less. The udder of a cow either cupped or vandoorne form. The speed maximize ranging from 3 to 3.5 kg in 1 minute. Per day-from them you can get about 60-65 kg of milk at double the milking.
Its name speaks for itself. It was bred in the XIX century in the Yaroslavl province. This made the selection of the best breeding animals from the local livestock. Other breeds she was mixed. This is evidenced by the first suit of the dairy cows of the Yaroslavl breed, as well as unique exterior and high fat content of the resulting product. Animals give the best yields, reaching the level of 11 thousand 600 kg of milk per year. More than half Yaroslavl cows milk with a fat content of 4% and above.
The Kholmogory breed
Was developed in the XVII century on the territory of Arkhangelsk province by way of national selection. Many experts believe that cows of the dairy breed Kholmogory have an admixture of Dutch black pied.
Animals are quite well developed. Weight of calves at birth ranges from 30 to 35 lbs. They are quite precocious. The weight of Mature cows ranges from 530 to 580 and bulls – 810-1000 kg. In average first calving occurs at 30 months.
Breeding plants, breed Kholmogory breed, determined the average milk yield of their animals. In 2004, he was 5380 kg of milk with a fat content of 3.85% and a intensity impact of 1.9 kg over 1 minute.
Selection of Kholmogory breed continues by pure breeding with blood black-and-white Holstein. The aim of the selection is the improvement of the quality and milk yields.
Red steppe breed
It has both advantages and disadvantages. The positive qualities include excellent acclimatization ability and responsiveness to good maintenance and feeding. The disadvantages is the low fat content of milk, postresponse, poor musculature and a number of conformation faults.
Farmers-breeders, who would like to improve red steppe breed cows, you must first pay attention to intrabreed selection. It should be done as on milk yield and live weight. In addition, it is necessary to increase the content of milk protein and fat.
The quality of the product in different households is very different. The fat content of milk can range from 3.3 to 5.3%, which points directly to the need to maintain selection of the best animals in the breed.
The cow is particularly popular in Russia. In recent years, dairy cows breed black-and-white were able to win the trust of many breeders due to its fairly high efficiency and a good ability to acclimatize.
The trunk of this animal is slightly elongated but proportional, udder large. Color black and white. But because of some existing differences in the properties of the local cattle in natural conditions and in the level of breeding, the breed has outlined a few types and groups. They differ both in appearance and fat content and yield of milk of milk.
Thus, black-motley cattle in the Central regions of Russia was obtained by crossing ostrozkogo and Dutch cattle with Kholmogory and Yaroslavl local cows. Also there are signs of impurity Simmental and brown Swiss breeds. These animals are quite large in size. Cows weigh up to 650 and bulls about 1,000 kg of milk Yield is relatively high, but still inferior to the fat other groups.
Features of breeding
In poslemolochny period, which lasts from 3-6 to 24 months, depending on the breed, the main task is to ensure normal development and growth of heifers, timely fertilization, and the formation of their maximum milk production.
Usually they are divided into age groups: 6-9, 9-12, 12-18 and 18-24 months. Each group contains without a leash in the stalls on-site forage free range of the yard or in a room with deep straw bedding. Water is supplied with the drinker.
In warm time of the year Chicks usually walk in the pastures. If there is not enough food, then make feeding which should contain a green mass of perennial and seeded annual grasses and concentrates. In winter, feeding should be twice a day – morning and evening. The diet must enter: 25-30% concentrate 40% -45% of silage and 28-33% haylage. But meat cows dairy breed inferior in quality to those which are specially bred to produce this product.
I must say that the cultivation of young heifers in all periods requires the creation of optimal conditions for their maintenance and feeding. This will largely contribute to the development of the desired type cows with high milk yield.
The farming of cattle for meat or milk is a pretty good and profitable business. If the case put on stream, any special problems for the host, he could not create. But keep in mind that cows of dairy breeds, the price of which is slightly higher than on meat require much more attention.
This kind of activity suggests that the business owner has special knowledge and skills. You must correctly approach issues of keeping animals in summer and winter, how and to whom to pass the milk and meat, where to put the manure where to take food, etc. in addition, you need to be able to understand the types of these animals and know all the prices. For example, cows of dairy breeds. The price can vary from 40 to 55 thousand and the calves are about 25 thousand rubles. Only after you have studied all these details, will be ready to breed cows.