Comprehensive classes in kindergarten
Modern society requires active citizens, capable of creative thinking, the adoption of non-standard solutions, as well as a positive creation. Unfortunately, to date, the educational process in the kindergarten still largely preserves the previously established traditional approach to the submission and assimilation of knowledge by children. But the stereotyped, monotonous repetition of similar actions does not cause interest in learning.
Traditional pedagogical methods are not able to give a baby the joy of discovery and gradually lead to the fact that he loses his creativity. But how to develop a child, so that in the future he was determined to create a new one? How to cultivate a creative personality? This requires certain conditions: organizational, personnel, as well as material and technical. You need appropriate equipment, benefits, in addition, the interest of the family and those people who work with the kids.
Developing creative abilities will allow modeling and drawing, artistic activities and games. In this regard, teachers and parents should pay special attention to comprehensive classes with children. After all, this training is conducted through the use of various types of art. This allows you to maximize the creative abilities of children.
The role of art
The development of the child's creative abilities is influenced by many factors that can be grouped into three groups. The first of these includes individual features and natural makings that have a direct impact on the formation of the child's creative activity. The second group contains all the existing forms of influence of the social environment. The third set of factors determines the dependence of the child's creative manifestations on the structure and nature of his activities.
Why are the comprehensive classes important for primary school children? Such training plays a special role in connection with the fact that various kinds of art are used for submitting the material. This includes music and literature, folk art and sculpture, and, of course, painting. Art in one form or another forms a person, awakens in the child a creative principle and has a direct impact on his spiritual world.
Complex classes give the children the opportunity to develop their imaginative representations and imagination, attention and memory, as well as a positive emotional attitude to the activity offered by the tutor.
What are the means of different types of arts? In literature this word serves for figurative definitions, epithets, rhythm, metaphors and comparisons. When performing the theatrical activity, they are means of dramatization in the form of facial expressions and gestures, movements and postures, intonation and voice. In the pictorial means, the means used in the complex occupation for children are the figures expressing the volume and shape, the proportions and the proportions of the sizes of objects. Also kids are carried away by applique. It allows them to develop the concept of form, composition and color. If a comprehensive class for children is conducted using music, then the means of education are harmony and rhythm, dynamics and melody, intonation, etc.
Positive aspects of complex occupations
The combination of various types of art leads to their versatile impact on the child. In doing so, it promotes the cognition of phenomena and objects from many sides while using all the senses at the same time.
Complex-thematic classes are held in such a way that children alternately draw and sing, dance and read poetry. And their performance of plot compositions or decorative works against the background of sounding lyrical music contributes to the creation of an emotional mood, which allows them to perform the tasks of the educator more successfully.
Complex classes in the kindergarten allow the kids to practice uninhibited and without coercion. For example, during the execution of a collective drawing, they will certainly consult each other about who and what details will be depicted. Agree on their actions and roles they will need and in the process of staging the song.
Complex classes in their content are very diverse. In this case, they are carried out in different ways. These can be blocks of classes:
- on acquaintance of children with the world of arts;
- on the most interesting children's subjects;
- on acquaintance of children with creativity of writers;
- emotional and moral upbringing;
- in acquaintance with the surrounding world, with folk art and nature.
Conducting comprehensive classes in various groups of the kindergarten
The way in which classes are conducted with children, first of all, depends on their age. An important parameter in this case is the accumulated life experience of the kids. So, comprehensive classes in the younger group (these are children 3-4 years old) are conducted using a live observation of a phenomenon or object, to which is attached its bright illustration.
Babies who reached the age of 4-5 years are offered a colorful picture, accompanied by a small literary work. The complex activity in the senior group of DOW (children from 5 to 6 years) is conducted using a song or a musical piece as a background or an independent part of the proposed activity.
Preschoolers from 6 to 7 years are invited to get acquainted with the artwork with a simultaneous examination of 2-3 reproductions depicting a similar or different landscape. Children can also be asked to describe a phenomenon or object in two or three poems in which there is a comparison or comparison. As a means of educating a creative person, listening to a piece of music is also used.
Types of Comprehensive Activities
Combined training is divided by the value of the arts used in it. So, stands out:
1. Dominant type. For him, the maximum use of one kind of arts is characteristic, while the rest are the background of the class.
2. Equivalent type. In these classes, all its parts complement each other.
Comprehensive classes in the junior group
Entering the first educational institution in their life, children 2-3 years old are subjected to adaptive stress. To eliminate it, educators should conduct comprehensive training sessions with the kids on the GEF Do within the framework of the "From birth to school" program.
The adaptive capabilities of children of early age, as well as younger preschool age, are small. With the advent of a pre-school educational institution, kids fall into a new social situation for them. With prolonged stays in a stressful state, the child may experience emotional disturbances or slow down the rate of psychophysical development.
A comprehensive lesson in the younger group should help kids to get used to unusual surroundings, to parting with their parents, to the appearance of a large number of children and the presence of unfamiliar adults. At the same time, the following tasks are solved by the educator:
- removal of the child's muscular and emotional tension;
- Reduction in the children of excessive motor activity and impulsiveness, aggression and anxiety;
- development of the ability of children to communicate with each other;
- improving the sense of rhythm, shallow and general motor skills, coordination of movement and playing skills.
What is the basis of such a complex occupation? The youngest group (the first) are children from 2 to 3 years old. They need a variety of games and dances, poteshki and songs, catch-up and rhymes. All this allows you to quickly involve the kids in the rhythm offered by the teacher, switch from tears to a friendly clap of hands and stomping feet. Such activities are designed to unite children and give them a good emotional mood.
Begins such training with exercises. Children amicably run, walk or perform other actions. And they do it under a certain musical or poetic rhythm. It is in the first part of the complex activities that the kids begin to adjust to group work, they have a good emotional background and increase their motor and speech activity.
Further, in parallel with the exercises, the educator offers children various games. This is the main part of a comprehensive exercise, where the kids get the opportunity to actively move, interact with peers and freely express emotions. At the third stage of the exercise, children are offered inactive and quiet tasks.
Second junior group
The development of abilities in children 3-4 years is promoted by the same games. They help to grow a smart, intelligent and inquisitive person.
At the age of three, the pre-school period begins in the life of the baby. This is the time when children already know a lot, and they want to learn as much as possible. And here comprehensive training is offered to the teacher's help. The second junior group will play with pleasure in the games, allowing to get acquainted with the surrounding world. Also, children will be able to learn the shapes of objects, their size and color, and also the location in space.
Complex classes at this age are designed to develop in children memory, thinking and attention, making their stay in the garden joyful and cognitive. The teacher should remember that frequent changes of roles, images and plots will cause children to overwork. At the same time, interest in the lessons will be lost. That is why all the exercises and games that are part of the learning structure should be one fairy story.
Classes with children of the second junior group are held in 2-3 stages. The number and acquisition of modules of exercises and games should be varied by the teacher. The educator is given the right to shorten the time of classes. This will prevent children from overworking. Also the teacher, depending on the mood of the children, has the right to change the sequence of parts of the lesson.
Complex occupations in the middle group
At the age of 4-5 years the child continues to be taught to actively interact with the surrounding world. And this is in many ways facilitated by the complex work conducted by the teacher. In the middle group, preschool children show special curiosity for everything that surrounds them. At this age, the child needs to expand the range of knowledge about the subjects, learn about their purpose and symptoms. This is largely facilitated by the educational process, which takes into account the age characteristics of the child and the level of its development.
A comprehensive lesson in the middle group includes games, exercises and tasks that help kids develop imagination and speech, memory and perception. The formation of these mental processes is an integral part of the conscious attitude to the world around us.
Complex classes for children of the middle group are held on the topics "Furniture" and "Tableware", "Clothes", "Transport" and "Toys". In doing so, they solve the problem:
- improvement of spatial orientation;
- the formation of the ability to focus their attention on objects;
- development of speech and enrichment of vocabulary;
- the formation of initial mathematical representations.
With the correct organization of comprehensive classes, children 4-5 years old at the end of the school year will learn to recognize surrounding objects and their signs, compare them and make simple experiments on them (for example, sinks - does not sink).
Acquaintance with nature
Training of the creative personality can be conducted for all age groups of children attending pre-school. However, a comprehensive training in the preparatory group is especially useful. For example, it can be a game training that introduces older preschoolers to the autumn season.
In the first part of the session, cognitive tasks are solved with simultaneous development of children's intellectual abilities. The educator at the same time clarifies the ideas of the young people about the fall, highlighting the characteristic features of this season. In this process, a special role will be played by a calendar with observations of changes in nature that must be prepared in advance.
In the second part of the session, other tasks are solved. In this case, a different kind of activity of preschool children is used. So, the tutor organizes a small exhibition on the topic of autumn. As its exhibits are used reproductions of famous artists, as well as photographs with pictures of a fading nature. Examination of such an exhibition, which causes children to experience beauty, allows to solve aesthetic tasks of upbringing.
In the third part of the lesson, manual activity and artistic creativity of preschool children are used. Children are encouraged to create at will and discretion. Preschoolers can draw bouquets of autumn flowers or perform crafts from various natural materials, create applications, etc. This part of the complex exercise allows to develop artistic and manual skills in children.
With the proper organization of such training, the time frame does not have strict limits. Children will not feel tired and bored. In addition, the teacher can always arrange for his students a fun physical education.
Classes in Mathematics
To the beginning of his school life a child must know a lot of numbers and magnitudes, and also be able to navigate in time and space. Pedagogical practice suggests that first-graders sometimes with difficulty move from actions to concrete images, objects, numbers and other abstract concepts. Avoid such difficulties, it is possible, developing the child's mental thinking in comprehensive classes in the kindergarten. It is in the preschool age that the children must become acquainted with various mathematical connections, the relationship between quantities, measures, and so on.
- repetition of the material that has already been traversed (from 2 to 4 minutes);
- acquaintance with a new topic (from 15 to 18 minutes);
- generalization of the assimilated (from 4 to 7 minutes).
For example, in the first part of a comprehensive lesson, children are compared the widths and lengths of objects. In this preschool the game "What has changed?" Is offered. In the second part of the lesson, the teacher demonstrates the techniques by which the width and length of objects are measured. Then the children do everything themselves. This kind of activity for them is a practical task. In the fourth part of the complex exercise, exercises are carried out to group and compare different geometric figures.