What should be the pressure in children? Blood pressure: norm by age, table
It is a mistake to think that problems with arterial pressure are a matter for older people. Absolutely not! This ailment can affect the child. What should be the pressure in children? And is it very different from the norm of an adult?
The problem with arterial pressure in children is much more common than one might expect. And to prevent serious consequences in the future, it is extremely important to monitor the child's condition and periodically measure his pressure.
It should be noted that measurement results often differ from those of adults. Normal pressure in children is an order of magnitude lower, therefore it is absolutely wrong to evaluate it according to the same standards.
What does the blood pressure depend on?
Small children have a good elasticity of the vascular wall, a larger lumen of the vessel and a better branching of the capillary network. This all directly affects blood pressure. In small children it is lower. Gradually, with age, it grows and reaches the norm of an adult.
The fastest increase in pressure in a child occurs in the first year of his life. By the age of five, BPs of boys and girls are compared in terms of indicators, and then up to nine years in boys it rises.
The norm of blood pressure in children
In a newborn baby, blood pressure will average 80/50 mm Hg.
In order not to muddle with the formulas and not count, a special table was compiled, in which the pressure of the child is plotted according to the ages.
Blood pressure, norm by age (table)
Features of blood pressure of different ages
What should be the pressure in children from birth to a year?
In such cases, blood pressure depends on the elasticity, the lumen of the vessels, the development of the capillary network. The tone of the vessels is reduced - the pressure is lowered accordingly. In a newborn baby, the indices fluctuate within such limits - 60-96 / 40-50 mmHg. By the year BP is gradually increasing, this is due to a rapid increase in the tone of the vessels. And by 12 months it is 90-112 / 50-74 mm Hg.
Mummy for determining the blood pressure of a child can use a special formula:
(76 + 2 * X), where X is the number of months of the child.
What kind of indicator, such as blood pressure, the norm at ages? The table, which is presented above, clearly demonstrates such information. It will not be difficult to determine the normal indicators for a child.
What should be the pressure in children from 2 to 3 years? After 2 years, the growth of blood pressure somewhat slows down, from the table it can be seen that it should be about 100-112 / 60-74 mm Hg.
Perhaps a single increase in pressure, which is not a pathology, so worry about this is not worth it. But in any case, once again see a doctor for advice will not hurt - vigilance first.
For babies of this age, there is another formula: for systolic - (90 + 2 * X), for diastolic - (60 * X), where X - the number of years the child.
What should be the pressure in children from 3 to 5 years?
At this age there is also a slow increase in blood pressure. It can be in such ranges: 110-116 / 60-76 mm Hg. It is also possible to decrease daily and increase pressure, which is physiological, that is, normal.
What should be the pressure in children from 6 to 9 years? In principle, it remains at the same level and is 100-122 / 60-78 mmHg.
At this time there may be a deviation from the average. This is due to the fact that the child goes to school, his regime is being reorganized, the physical load on the child's body is reduced, and the psychological one is growing.
During this period, you should observe the baby, and in case of frequent changes from the pressure - consult a doctor.
What should be the pressure in children 10 years old, 11 and 12?
The average index of the table is 110-126 / 70-82 mmHg. but at this time puberty usually begins, which can affect the indicators of blood pressure.
Also plays the role of a child's physique. Naturally, in thin and tall children, the indices will differ from those of those who have less growth and greater body weight.
Therefore, it is better to consult a doctor and determine the average pressure of your child.
What should be the pressure in children from 13 to 15 years old? The table says that the average values of blood pressure are 110-136 / 70-86 mm Hg. But the teenage age is quite complicated, the children during this period are experiencing a lot of stress, heavy for themselves situations. All this affects health, and there are possible such phenomena as adolescent hypo- or hypertension.
During this period, to eliminate problems in the future, it is advisable to consult on this issue with your doctor.
If the child has frequent headaches, then you should pay attention to this and go to the doctor. Most likely, he will ask you to measure the pressure of the child. How to do it right?
We measure the pressure of the child correctly
To begin with we calm the baby, we explain that we will not do anything bad to him, so that he relaxes and does not worry, as this can interfere.
It is extremely important to use a children's cuff, these are on sale. Also in pharmacies there are a lot of good electronic tonometers.
It is better to measure blood pressure, of course, in the morning when the child is just awake, and in the evening, before going to bed. The child should lie on his back, ask him to take the pen aside, palm up. It is important that the hand is lying, not standing on the weight.
Next we find the elbow fold, put on the cuff above it for a couple of centimeters. Then we check that the cuff does not strongly pinch the hand, for this we put a finger under it, if it enters freely, then everything is fine.
Then we put the phonendoscope on the place where the pulse is well felt to the touch, this is the ulnar fossa. Next, close the valve, inflate the air until the pulse disappears. We open the valve so that the air slowly descends, and carefully look at the scale.
The very first sound we hear speaks of systolic pressure, the last one is about diastolic pressure.
The indicators of each measurement should be recorded so that they can be shown at the next medical examination.
Causes of high blood pressure in a child
High blood pressure in a child can occur for many reasons. More often this disorder occurs in adolescents, when not only physical, but also emotional restructuring of the body takes place. It may be that the regime of the day is not correctly designed for the child. Sleep also plays a role, if the baby does not get enough sleep, nightmares torment him, it can negatively affect the pressure. Frequent stresses harm any organism, not only the child.
Perhaps there can be reasons and more serious - for example, health problems: disruptions in the work of the endocrine system, the brain, various kidney pathologies, poisoning, and vascular tone disorders.
How to reduce the pressure in children?
There is a simple pre-medical method that gives a quick effect. We moisten the gauze in the vinegar (you can take any - table or apple) and apply to the heels of the baby for 10 minutes.
It is also useful to use currants (only black), watermelon, baked potatoes in uniform. But this will bring the result not immediately, but gradually.
Causes of low blood pressure in a child
Low blood pressure in a child is less common. In general, the normal blood pressure for the day may go down, it depends on the circumstances. It decreases after eating, intense training or when the baby is stuffy. If this condition does not affect the overall well-being of the baby, then it is not worth worrying about, this is the norm.
However, if it is lowered strongly, this is not good. Low pressure can occur for the following reasons:
- infectious diseases;
- stress and other emotional stress on the child;
- heart diseases;
- craniocerebral trauma;
- side effects of medications.
How to increase the pressure in children?
The simplest remedy is caffeine, which is in coffee. If low pain is added to low pressure, then it is necessary to resort to medications.
But drug treatment, any medications, the above prescriptions and tips should be strictly coordinated with the doctor in charge, even the most innocuous means - a drink such as coffee. It is better to be reinsured once again, since it is a question of the health of a small child.