How to distinguish stearic candles from paraffin wax? How to make tallow candles with their hands
Humanity since the discovery of fire was looking for ways to maintain it. First, this function was performed by the torch, which was burning tar. It was poured into the recess in the handle of wood. However, the torch was short-lived due to the burning arm. The resin began to pour in earthen and glass vessels. Along with the resin burned animal and vegetable fats. And the burning material fell the piece of moss, a bunch of fibers of plants, and then a piece of string or a strip of cloth. This type of wick was the beginning of wick lamps.
The history of the lamp
The first lamps were not perfect. They smoked terribly, and the light from them was weak and often Gus.
Later clay bowl has become a closed kettle, the spout of which is passed through the wick. So there was an oil lamp, a few hundred years became the best source of lighting. The flame was brighter, however, when burning, the lamp smoked. Soot helped to overcome the invention of lamp glass.
History of candles
Another descendant of the torch is a candle. First candles were made of wax or fat. They appeared in the X century of our era. The easiest way made tallow candles. A wick dipped in melted fat, were taken out, the fat on it froze. This procedure was repeated several times to create a candle of the required thickness. Much later, there were special forms for candles, which are poured the melted wax or fat.
Light from tallow candles was a little, and a lot of soot. Because of this the room is usually lit several candles like these. Then was invented the candelabra – candlestick with branching to fasten several products.
Material to replace the fat needed for a long time, but have been found in the early XIX century. For candles began to be used stearin, were an integral part of fat. Thus was born the stearic candle. When he appeared, it immediately became popular, displacing the sebaceous. Brighter it burned, without letting the soot and getting your hands dirty. Stearin candles surpassed its predecessor on all counts. And applied have become ubiquitous.
Many argue about what came first — the oil lamp or tallow candle. Stearic acid, which almost immediately began to make candles, was invented in 1816. Kerosene replaced the oil in the lamps only in the mid-nineteenth century.
First, the material for the candle production served as a wax and paraffin. Later began to use stearin. Of paraffin and stearin different physical and chemical characteristics, and affects the difference in made of these materials and candles.
Paraffin is a product of oil refining, which is a mixture of various hydrocarbons. In the composition of stearin contains glycerin and stearic acid. It relates to complex esters. This led to a different temperature to their melting point: paraffin — from 36 to 55 °C, while the stearin from 55 to 72 °C. This makes the products from the harder stearin by giving the opportunity to better preserve the shape. The temperature of the flame of stearin candles is 1500 °C, and paraffin — 1400 °C.
When a candle manufacture almost do not use paraffin and stearin in its purest form. Often they are mixed in various proportions. Usually use stearic candles, which is 96% palm oil and 4% paraffin.
How to distinguish stearic candle from paraffin? In the life of the wax is distinguished from stearin through the use of alkali. When lye reacts with stearin, the result is soap, which under the action of acid precipitates. Paraffin as neutral in relation to the alkali solution, so nothing will change.
The most frequently stearin is a raw material for making various decorative products.
The production of their own hands
If in the old days candles were used in order to ensure the normal lighting of the premises, in our days stearin candles increasingly take on a role of interesting decor element that can create a romantic or festive atmosphere.
Now in specialized stores sold a variety of items candle production, as the simplest and capture the imagination of its quirkiness and originality. At the same time, such jewelry is quite amenable to self-production using simple materials that are freely available. Create your own hands this element of decor does not require too big financial costs and does not take much time. At the same time, giving free rein to your untamed fantasies and invested in his work soul, you will create an unprecedented thing, which is able to give joy to you and others.
Miracles will of stearin, paraffin or wax. People new to creating candles, it is best to start your experiments with paraffin, as it is the simplest. Paraffin or bought in shop or obtained from ordinary household candles white or cinders.
Stearin also it is easy to get from ordinary soap. To do this, grate the soap on a coarse grater or plane with a knife. Then the prepared chip is placed in a metal tank, fully filled with water and sent to a water bath for melting. After dissolving the soap, it is removed from the fire, after which the resulting composition is added to the vinegar. On the surface you will see plenty of thick consistency, which after final cooling can be removed with a spoon. This substance is stearin. It needs to be rinsed under running water and wrapped in a clean cloth to remove excess moisture.
The best wick can serve as a cotton thread large thickness. You can use twisted or woven floss. Artificial materials to create a wick is absolutely not suitable, as the burn quickly, making a disgusting smell. The easiest wick to ordinary candles.
Form, dyes, utensils
Form can serve a variety of containers. This can be the form of sand, or cans of coffee. If you want to make the decoration, narrowed upwards or round, you must take a container that is used as a shape, for example a ball made of plastic. It is necessary to make a longitudinal section and make a hole in the top of the form, having a diameter of not less than ten millimetres, in order to freely be able to fill the composition.
As dyes it is possible to use wax crayons, food coloring or natural substances, for example, cocoa. Dyes having as the basis of water or alcohol, are not suitable.
You will also need utensils: quite suitable pan or bowl of small size. It is important that she feels comfortable in a water bath.
Additional materials are needed in order to give beauty to your work. In addition, you can use any flavors. The use of additional substances only limit is your imagination. It can be beads, shells, sequins, and smells — cinnamon, vanilla, essential oils.
You need to grind raw material, which is chosen to operate and expose it to the water bath. If you are using household candles wick from them is extracted. In the case of the remnants of used candles need to be cleaned from the dark soot. Slowly stirring the mass until it completely melt. Pre-made wick should be several times lower in mass, so it was well soaked.
In composition it is necessary to add a dye and flavoring. When using wax crayons they need to first grind through a fine grater. If you just use two or more colors, it is possible to achieve the marble color. When the mass is divided into several parts and they are painted in different colors, it is possible to manufacture colored products.
The form that is chosen for DIY, it is necessary to grease with vegetable oil or substance for washing dishes. To secure the end of the wick, use a pencil, toothpick or stick. It is set on the form so that its free end lies approximately in its Central part, and reached the bottom. That the design was reliable, the free end of the wick is provided with a sinker.
In shape is filled with the melted mass, after which must wait until it fully hardens. Next, the candle is drawn over the wick. If you have trouble extracting the product required a small time to load the form into a vessel with hot water.
Stearin candles decorated in different ways. Can be placed on the edges of the forms of dried flowers and seeds. Then gently pour it into the heated mass. To make a coffee candle, you need to sprinkle the bottom of the molds with a layer of coffee beans, pouring the molten mass, and at the top again to put the coffee beans. Decorating with shells, beads and rhinestones do, waiting for the solidification of the product and taking it out of the molds. Mounting of decorative elements takes place by means of glue. Such stearic candle, a photo of which is shown above, will give a feast for you and your family.