Gurami-Nitenos: content, description, photo
Gurami-Nitenos - amazing and beautiful fish, so they attracted the attention of many fans of aquarium fish culture. In Russia, the spotted gourami was first introduced in 1904, other species appeared only after 1945. They called these creatures of the water world so because of the long threads into which their first soft rays of the pelvic fins were reorganized. They are the organ of touch. The family of labyrinths unites more than thirty species of fish. A genus of tropical freshwater labyrinths from the family of macroporous.
They are found in medium-sized ones with weak currents or standing water wells overgrown with vegetation in Asia. The body is high, oval, strongly compressed at the sides. In the middle of the back or slightly off-set to the tail is the dorsal fin. The length of its base is several times smaller than that of the anal fin. Famous yarns are located closer to the chest. More precisely, behind the pectoral fins.
The lateral line is complete. Color varied, depending on the species.
Almost all the fish of this family are small in size, up to 12 centimeters. The serpentine gourami can be up to twenty-five centimeters. In an aquarium most often grow up to ten centimeters. The color intensity indicates health, but not in all cases.
The labyrinthine organ is located in the nadestribular cavity. Very thin bone plates are located in this place. Without atmospheric air, in a tightly closed vessel, fish die quickly.
Gurami in the aquarium as the orderlies. Quickly they eat the hydra that comes in with the live food, it is the enemy for the fish. Hydras are dangerous both for young animals and for adults.
It is a beautiful freshwater fish, rarely kept at home. Can live in ditches, small streams, slowly flowing rivers, rice fields. Dimensions small do not exceed four centimeters, hence the name. Color brown, may occur small red, blue or green scales. In the world they are beautifully poured. Eyes are blue, fins are transparent, fin on belly is small with filiform process. In captivity can live no more than five years. Sexual dimorphism is not very pronounced. It is believed that males have a more vivid and attractive color.
The species is divided into two subspecies: spotted and Sumatran (blue). The length can be 11-13 centimeters. In both subspecies the snout is pointy, the eyes are large reddish located in the anterior part of the head.
Color silver-olive, bluish or lilac shade with darker transverse stripes of the same color and two large spots in the middle of the trunk and at the base of the tail. Fins are almost transparent, with yellowish patches, the anal has a reddish rim. During the propagation of color, the gurus become more intense. The spotted species is divided into three color types: marble, gold, silver.
The color is light blue, black spots of irregular shape are scattered on its background. On the green-blue fins - white-yellow points, the anal-orange border. The name was received because of the color, similar to marble.
The coloration is white-blue with hardly visible transverse blue lines and two spots in the center of the body, like the other subspecies. On the fins there are dairy points, and on the anal - yellow patches and orange border.
This species was first discovered by a Dutch biologist. He has a karyotype consisting of four chromosomes, just like a human. Gurami-Nitenos have some intellectual abilities. They have a hierarchical structure in the pack, they are non-aggressive and curious.
In length these fish can reach twelve centimeters. Similar in structure with spotted gourae, but unpaired fins are more lush, with elongated soft rays that protrude sharply behind the fin's fin. Color silvery-violet, can be cream. On the background are scattered many glowing spots, similar to pearls. From the snout through the eyes to the tail is a strip of black color. Color smoothly passes to the fins.
Pearl gourami-females are smaller than males. In males, the dorsal fin is longer, the chest and anterior part of the anal orange, red or red-violet. In females, the anal fin is slightly reddish.
Individuals can be up to 18 centimeters in length. In appearance it is similar to spotted, but the back and forehead are stretched out more. Snout slightly bends upward, lips large. The fin on the back is more rounded and shorter. The filaments of the ventral fins extend to the edge of the caudal fin. The body is covered with shallow scales. Gurami-male has a longer and sharper fin than the female. The anal fin is orange, the threads are orange-red. In female individuals in the yellow-orange color, only the threads are colored.
Brown or serpentine gourami
Individuals reach a length of 20 centimeters. The silhouette is similar to the spotted, but the snout is sharper, the lobes of the caudal fin are cordate. Color silver, through the entire body is an intermittent streak of dark spots. Transverse body is striated by dark lines. Young growth has a monophonic color.
Predominantly in this species of gourami, the green color predominates over the blue. The temperature of the contents is the same as that of the others.
To make it easier and more understandable to familiarize yourself with each species, you can read about the content of gourami. Photo of fish will help to imagine their appearance.
Spotted gurami-nitenos, regardless of shape and species, should be kept in aquariums with a capacity of at least sixty liters. The temperature regime of water - from 24 to 28 degrees, is allowed from 20 to 24. These fish can shorten the time to decrease to sixteen. What will be the rigidity and acidity, it does not matter. The ground is suitable for dark and dense vegetation. Aeration and filtration are not needed.
The content of pearl gourami is similar to caring for spotty, only water in the aquarium is advised to filter and a little aerated. This species can live with small and non-aggressive fish.
Lunar gourami contain the same, but aquariums should be more than a hundred liters. After all, this species prefers to swim freely. Lighting needs a soft, slightly diffused light. Fishes are peaceful, compatible only with small and non-aggressive creatures.
The brown gourami compatibility is excellent. They get on well with other fish. Care is the same as with the rest of the family.
The character of dwarf gourami, like other species, is undemanding. It is important that there is no strong current. For this species it is desirable to place in the aquarium not only plants, but also shelters in the form of caves and grottoes. Contain better in small flocks, no more than 6 fish. For the balance of females should be slightly more. They do not like loud sounds, so it's best to take them to a quiet place in the house.
Predominantly fish should be given live food, food is the same for all gurus, species do not matter. Suitable small bloodworm, tubule, cycle, shrimp meat, and also need to give food of plant origin. To supplement the diet, you need dry or combination foods.
Do not forget that frequent consumption of artificial dry food is harmful to fish. Some gurus stop multiplying or their offspring are frail.
The fry should first be fed with infusoria, coloviruses and egg yolk. Young is important to sort by size.
Do not forget that the mouth of the Nitenos is small, so the food should be small. Also, you can not overfeed fish, if necessary they can live without food for a week.
Sexual maturity is attained approximately at the age of nine to twelve months. Difficulty multiplying gourami. Types of fish perform this process in different ways.
Spotted gurus in a common aquarium do not spawn. For this they need a separate capacity of up to fifty liters. To set them off should be in pairs. Water should be from 26 to 28 degrees. There must necessarily be plants, in the thicket the female will hide, if it is not completely ready for spawning. The male at this time creates a nest about eight centimeters in size and drives the female to him. She mows up to 2000 eggs, after it is planted. And the male remains to guard caviar. When the larvae begin to swim, it should also be deposited. For a season, spotted gurus spawn four times.
For the cultivation of a pearly species, it is required to maintain a temperature regime from 29 to 30 degrees. The nest is made by males from foam and pieces of plants. During the spawning period, the male grabs the female and turns her belly up towards the nest. Caviar with a high fat content pops up, but the male collects it and puts it in the allotted space. At one time the female lays up to 200 eggs.
When spawning the moon gurus, the temperature must also be raised to 30 degrees. A male specimen creates a nest of foam up to a width of 25 and a height of up to 15 centimeters. Fertility - up to 5000 eggs.
Brown gurus build nests in size about eight, in height up to one centimeter. Fecundity is the same as that of the lunar species. The larvae are exfoliated after 36 hours, and they begin to eat on the third day.
For effective breeding of a dwarf species, it is better to purchase pairs of gurus. The price depends on the type of fish and the place of purchase and ranges from $ 0.4 to $ 3. You can take one male into two females.
As it was already written, at the gurami the lower fins are equipped with a threadlike mustache. This is one of the features of these fish. The mustache is a tactile organ. With its help, the fish feel objects and orient themselves in space. This organ appeared at the gurami because of the natural habitat, because they usually live in troubled waters, in which it is difficult to see anything. Another amazing feature is also related to the habitat. The gurami has a labyrinth organ, it allows fish to be without water for up to eight hours. They live in places deprived of oxygen, and therefore could not do without the ability to breathe air.
The breeders did not immediately learn how to transport fish, since they used a wrong way of transporting gourami at first. Care was not so complicated. It is believed that these fish are some of the most uncomfortable among aquarium inhabitants. If the living conditions are created correctly, they can live up to 12 years. Regardless of the type of care for gourami is similar.
Optimum conditions for Nitenos inhabitants
It is easy to create the necessary conditions, since the Nitenos are unpretentious. It is important only to adhere to the minimum requirements:
1. Fish are moving and curious, they need a free seat. Therefore, the aquarium should be of appropriate size.
2. Gourami are able to jump high enough above the water. So that they do not harm themselves, you should cover the aquarium with a lid with holes for air.
3. The natural habitat for them is tropical countries, therefore, there must be bright illumination. To do this, the aquarium should be located next to the window or use special extra lighting. The better the illumination, the more saturated the color of the Nitenos.
4. It is important to have live algae for shy gourami. The green island will be an excellent refuge. And the males at the right time will create nests there.
5. For gurami it is not necessary to have a filter and aeration, since they know how to breathe air. If you equip them with an aquarium, there will be no harm from the absence of an aerator. Only there should be no strong currents, fish prefer standing water.
6. It is necessary to change the water in the aquarium once per week by 1/3. Do not forget about maintaining the desired temperature.
Choosing the inhabitants of the aquarium
Beautiful creatures gurami-nitenoscy. The contents do not cause special difficulties for owners. However, many prefer to combine in the same aquarium fish of different species. Nitenos are peaceful, therefore it is not recommended to put them together with those who have aggressive behavior.
Do not fit like neighbors:
Specialists also do not advise keeping viviparous fish in one aquarium with them, since fry can be easy prey for the Nitenos.
- Soma (antsitrusy, corridors);
Even an inexperienced aquarist can take care of nitenos. Fish not only have an unusual attractive appearance, but they are also always interesting to observe.
When acquiring a nitenosce in your own aquarium, it is important to make the right choice. Pale color does not speak of illness or stress. When the fish will live in a permanent house, it will get used to the environment, and a bright color will return to it.
Pay attention to the fins and mustaches, they should be in good condition, not torn, not shabby and perfectly open. Before you plant a fish in a common aquarium, you must first place it in a separate container for a week for quarantine.
This is done for the safety of other inhabitants, since if a new nitenocean is a carrier of the disease, others may become infected. During the quarantine period, a fish is made every day for 15 minutes. After the procedure, it is put back into its clean and warm container with fresh water.
Diseases of gourami
Nitenos are usually quite hardy. They can get sick from sick fish or because of poor nutrition. Sick individuals must be isolated from healthy individuals.
The most common are:
1. Lymphocytosis. It appears in the form of wounds, nodules and swelling. Appear darkened spots and powdery coating.
2. Pseudomonas. At first appear darkened spots, which later are transformed into ulcers.
3. Aeromonoz. Appears due to a change in the aquarium. Symptoms: refusal to eat, withdrawal to the bottom, swollen and bleeding abdomen.
Gurami-Nitenos - beautiful fish. The larger the aquarium, the larger they are. The peculiarity of them is that the broken pectoral fins can grow anew from the gourami. The photos will help to see their attractiveness and uniqueness.
Gurami are simple in content and care, beautiful and interesting in behavior. With their presence they decorate any water environment, because when creating suitable conditions they look bright and original. And the most important thing is that even a novice aquarist can take care of them.