Blood group of the child: useful information
In modern society there is an opinion that the child's blood type must necessarily be the same as that of one of his parents. And, by the way, information about her education can be found in the school textbook on biology. And then it becomes clear that this statement is only partially true.
So first of all, let's find out what the child's blood type is. These are the individual characteristics of red blood cells, which are detected by identifying the groups of proteins and carbohydrates entering their membranes.
A person has several antigen systems (there are four of them), and how they are inherited will be considered below.
Landstein, in his research on red blood cells, identified certain substances that were later divided into several categories: A and B, and AB (contain two markers at the same time), and a third category that included cells that did not contain any of the substances (0). Thus, a special system emerged, according to which the division into blood groups takes place. Her humanity has enjoyed to this day.
So, I (0) - antigens A and B are absent, II (A) - presence of antigen A, III (B) - presence of antigen B, IV (AB) - presence of antigens of both A and B.
Later it was proved that the blood type of the child is inherited by the same principles as its other signs.
Under the Mendelian law, parents with I gr. give birth to children with the same group, if they have I and II gr. or I and III gr. then children, respectively, will wear the same blood groups. And only people who have IV gr. will have children with any group (except I), regardless of what type of antigens their partner has. And if the parents have II and III gr. then their descendants can have any of four groups.
Thus, the blood group of the parents and the child may not coincide.
Consider how the Rh factor is determined. First of all, it is worth noting that it is a lipoprotein that is either located in the erythrocyte membranes (positive, denoted by "+") or not (negative, denoted by "-").
So, parents with "+" and "+" Rhesus will have children with "+" (75%) and "-" (25%).
It should be said that the blood type of the child and parents may be the same, or maybe not, exactly the same as the Rh factor. Thanks to the development of science today, through simple calculations it is possible to determine what the child will be, long before his birth. To do this, calculate possible combinations of proteins in the human blood.
However, there are cases when pregnancy reveals that the child's blood type is incompatible with the mother's (for example, a woman has a "-" Rhesus and a fetus a "+"). In this case, the development of maternal blood antibodies in relation to fetal blood. It is also possible if the parents have different blood types.
Studies that were conducted on this subject led to the conclusion that not all blood groups are compatible with each other.
Thus, thanks to the development of genetics, we currently know four blood groups and the order of inheritance by their descendants. In our time, it is possible to identify the signs of a future generation even before it is born. And the knowledge of the incompatibility of groups and Rh factors allows us to take precautions in advance in order to preserve our offspring.