Gestational diabetes during pregnancy
All nine months from the moment of conception of the baby are quite a stressful period in the life of every woman. With the emergence of the fetus in the maternal womb, the body requires more energy. Very often in this period, changing the course of all metabolic processes in the body. Moreover, often there is a gestational insulinozawisimom.
Adipose tissue, liver, muscles become resistant to the hormone insulin. In the event of adverse conditions is increased blood sugar, which very often entails the emergence of diabetes. This disease is usually detected during a regular examination at the antenatal clinic. In the period to 24 weeks for analysis is taken only venous blood, and in the third trimester is a special test sugar curve.
Gestational diabetes during pregnancy is a serious disease that requires a competent approach to treatment. The basis of this disease lies in improper metabolism of carbohydrates, and more specifically, decrease in glucose tolerance.
In the U.S. he has conducted research on this issue. According to reports, gestational diabetes in women the situation is diagnosed in 4% of cases. European scientists have read the other information. It is known that the prevalence of this disease varies in the range from 1 to approximately 14% of the total number of pregnancies. About 10% of ladies after childbirth stay with the symptoms of this ailment, which subsequently is converted to sugar type 2 diabetes.
These relatively high prevalences of pathology worldwide testify primarily about a lack of awareness of women in the issues of the possible consequences of this disease. As a consequence, only a few seek help from a qualified physician.
What is the threat diabetes during pregnancy?
First, it is a negative impact on the fetus inside the mother's womb. In the early stages of diabetes may provoke the spontaneous miscarriage or lead to various kinds of defects in the development of cerebral structures and heart of the baby. If the disease was diagnosed at a later time (2-3 trimesters), very likely excessive fetal growth, which leads to diabetic fetopathy. The main features of this pathology are considered overweight (over 4 kg), respiratory distress, imbalances in the body, hypoglycemia.
How's the pregnancy?
In this case, it is impossible to answer this question, as each case is individual. Woman, as a rule, hospitalitynet to the hospital three times. First time in the early period she undergoes a complete examination, the results of which the physician decides on the conservation and management of pregnancy, and assigns preventive treatment. The second time hospitalization is carried out in the period of 20 weeks, as at this time the appearance of the first complications. At 32 weeks the doctor chooses the method and timing of future births.
Who are the most susceptible to this disease?
Gestational diabetes during pregnancy usually develops when there is a genetic predisposition, which is realized under the influence of several factors such as:
• high levels of sugar in the urine
• different types of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
• age (over 30 years)
• a pre-toxicosis and gestosis
• various disorders in the cardiovascular system
• chronic miscarriage.
The main reasons
Gestational diabetes in women develops as a result of reducing the usual sensitivity of body cells to its own insulin. This is due to increased hormone levels in the blood, which is very commonly seen in pregnancy. In addition, women have rapidly reduced the level of glucose, since it now needs and the fetus, and the placenta. The consequence of all the above factors is considered to be a compensatory increased production of insulin by the pancreas. So, that is why often in the blood of women in the position of these indicators is somewhat higher. If the pancreas can not cope with their direct duties, namely, to produce the necessary amount of insulin develops gestational diabetes.
The increase of sugar level in this disease, as a rule, insignificant. That is why the pronounced symptoms in pregnant women are very rare. In some cases there is a thirst and frequent urination, and dry skin. However, all these symptoms are perceived by women as specific features of their situation.
How is the confirmation of the presence of the disease?
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes involves blood glucose levels and the special glucose tolerance test (GTT).
In medicine there are two kinds GTT depending on the method of administration of glucose: intravenous and oral. In the second version of the test, the patient is encouraged to drink a sweetened liquid, which contains exactly 50 grams of sugar. After 20 minutes she take venous blood samples (to determine the content of glucose). If the sugar level exceeds 140 mg/DL, you will need to pass and intravenous glucose tolerance test.
In conducting this research is very important to observe some conditions. First and foremost, patients are advised within five days prior to the anticipated test date to adhere to regular physical activity and nutrition, however, the content of carbohydrates in the diet should exceed 150 g. it is Important to remember that the blood sampling is carried out only in the morning and on an empty stomach. The patient is recommended fasting for 14 hours before the test. During the study itself is better to be in a calm state.
What should be the treatment?
Gestational diabetes during pregnancy is often complicated by the fact that a woman has about four times a day to measure glucose levels. It is important to note that drug therapy in this case is absolutely contraindicated because it may adversely affect the development of the baby in the womb.
As for the question of treatment, in this case, experts recommend to stick to a special diet, regularly check sugar levels. If all of the above tips do not produce the desired results, is assigned to insulin therapy.
How is the diet in this disease?
Gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy involves the observance of a certain diet. As noted above, proper nutrition is often the key to successful treatment of the disease. Experts recommend in any case not to reduce the nutritional value of food, it is better to slightly reduce its calorie content. Below are effective tips regarding diet with the diagnosis.
• You should eat small portions and always at a certain time.
• It is recommended to completely exclude from the daily diet all fried and fatty foods and carbohydrate (for example, cake) and fast food.
• What to eat in diabetes? The diet is better to enrich various kinds of cereals, fresh fruits and vegetables, pasta (only whole grains). All these foods contains high amount of fiber, which is very useful during pregnancy.
• The diet you can use low-fat meat and fish is better to limit the consumption of smoked products, frankfurters and sausages.
• Cook food should be steamed or baked in the oven using a minimum amount of oil.
• Do not forget the proper drinking regime (at least two liters of pure non-carbonated water per day).
Daily physical exercises are very useful for pregnant women, since they support muscle tone, improve health, and the action of insulin, prevent the appearance of excess fat deposits. Of course, the load in this case should be moderate. Women are encouraged to attend classes on yoga, to make every day Hiking, swimming in the pool. Do not overuse active exercise (horse riding, skating and skiing), as they may cause injury. It is important to adjust each time the loads on the assumption of being the most pregnant.
Immediately after childbirth gestational diabetes mellitus in women, usually takes place, however, in some cases, it may lead to complications. As noted above, baby is born very large, so they often have to resort to caesarean section. The fact is that in natural childbirth there is a possibility to birth injuries.
The child is born with low blood sugar, but no special measures for its normalization does not apply. The glucose level comes to normal, if the mother feeds the baby's chest. This figure should be continuously monitored by specialists of the maternity hospital.
If a woman will strictly follow all the prescriptions of the doctor during pregnancy, her baby will not threaten gestational diabetes, the delivery will be easy.
If the woman neglects the complex therapy during pregnancy, this violation may cause the newborn will appear diabetic fetopathy. It is characterized by the following features:
• increased blood clotting
• swelling of the tissues
• violation of the natural proportions of the body (for example, excessively thin limbs)
• different kinds of disorders of the respiratory system.
To finally overcome this illness like gestational diabetes, diet should be continued after delivery. To adhere to a strict diet is recommended as long as blood sugar is finally back to normal.
Experts advise all women with this diagnosis each year to do the test. It is believed that one out of five women who had this disease actually found undiagnosed type 2 diabetes.
According to experts, to prevent the development of this disease is actually very difficult. Often women who are at risk, and does not suffer from diabetes.
It is important to note that planning pregnancy after this diagnosis must be under the supervision of a physician, and not earlier than 2 years since previous birth. A few months before this period, it is recommended to begin to monitor their own weight to enter in your daily routine exercise, asking the doctor what to eat in diabetes.
Reception brand of any medication should always be arranged with a specialist. The fact is that the unsupervised use of medications, including birth control pills, can result in the development of such disease as gestational diabetes.
Specialists and women who have given birth say that in the case of competent approach on the part of the physician the probability of a positive outcome is very high. It is important and after the appearance of the baby born to continue to monitor their body. For example, after 1.5 months to do the test to determine the level of glucose. On the basis of its results, the specialist will give recommendations on the future of nutrition and lifestyle in General, and will set a date for the next test of the test.
In conclusion, it should again be noted that this diagnosis is in compliance with all recommendations of the physician practically does not bear in itself threats for the baby's health. It is very important in this case to positively set your thoughts in a timely manner to pass all the tests, eat right. You can find interesting recipes for diabetes, they will be useful not only for the mother but also her partner. Experts recommend more rest, exercise, and evening walk with a loved one. If a woman is that the pregnancy goes well, as a result, the light appears completely healthy baby.