Experimentation in the preparatory group
In the conditions of modern society, such human qualities as independence, ability to improve their skills, to constantly learn, expanding the knowledge base become especially important. And the sphere of education, including preschool education, can not remain aloof, because it forms the makings for the further development of children. A new direction of work with pupils of kindergartens is experimentation in the pre-school, aimed at understanding the properties of objects and phenomena of nature through their direct perception. Such training is the most effective.
Experimentation in the preparatory group
The most suitable age for starting this kind of cognitive activity is a period of 5-6 years. Therefore, the most effective experimentation in the preparatory group of the kindergarten. At this age, research is a natural process for the child. He studies everything that happens around, but more often than not it happens haphazardly. Specially prepared lessons on experimentation in the DOW can expand the child's ideas about the world around him, interest him in something with which he might not have collided in everyday life.
The teacher in this case is not the subject of influence on the object (the learner), but becomes with him in one row, exploring and learning together. The purpose of such a lesson in the preparatory group is to help the child:
- select an object;
- find a method;
- gather the most complete information.
These tasks for the baby lie in the zone of the nearest development, that is, they can not be realized by themselves yet.
Experimenting in DOW on GEF is actively developing direction of preschool pedagogy, specific methods of which are created and tested in modern kindergartens. Educators build their own training programs based on common goals and objectives.
Goals and objectives of technology
Experimentation in the preparatory group is an important part of cognitive work. Its meaning is very great. The preparatory group are children of preschool age who have been in the DOW for the last year. Thus, the skills and knowledge obtained here become the basis for further education. Child experimentation in the DOW has the following objectives:
- creation of conditions for the child to form a complete picture of the world, surrounding objects and phenomena;
- development of the emotional-value sphere of the individual;
- enriching the vocabulary and general knowledge of knowledge;
- improvement of communicative skills, ability to cooperate with peers and a teacher.
The implementation of these points will be all the more successful the more systematically the process of cognition is built up and the interaction between the baby and the adult effectively.
Each activity pursues a specific goal, including children's experimentation in the DOW. The results should be tangible. What exactly do educators achieve by conducting such unusual and interesting activities in the preparatory group? The result of the pedagogical process should be as follows:
- Children improve speech, they use more words in their active vocabulary.
- The value of the surrounding world and nature becomes higher, because in close interaction with objects of wildlife the child learns to understand the needs of plants and animals and empathize with them.
- Working in a team, delimiting the spheres of activity, performing each of his tasks and bringing together all the data for the overall result, the kids begin to communicate more effectively.
- The world in the view of young experimenters no longer consists of individual things and phenomena, it turns into an integral structure.
In other words, the preschooler begins to objectively assess everything that surrounds him, from objects to people, and this will greatly help him in his future adulthood.
All you need is in sight
What is a corner of experimentation in the DOW? A kindergarten, which practices innovative education, must be equipped with appropriate materials. The angle of experimentation in the DOW must consist of objects and materials that are used in the course of the session. The illustrations are also relevant: the schemes of experiments, the description and the depiction of the properties and qualities of the objects under study. Exposition should not be static: children quickly lose interest in what is constantly in sight. The most acceptable option will be a thematic exhibition for each lesson. On the day when the properties of magnets are studied, in the corner of experimentation there will be not only the objects under study, but also samples of various metals and other materials: wood, plastic, rubber, minerals, etc.
In general, the corner of experimentation in the preparatory group must necessarily contain everything that is required in order to study weight, attraction, time, simple chemical reactions and physical phenomena. For the most part, these are everyday things that we use in everyday life.
What specifically fill the corner of experimentation in the preparatory group? In it should be present:
- Tara. Everything in which materials, reagents and samples are stored. Most of the jars, boxes and bottles should consist of plastic. It is possible to use wooden and metal containers. Glass should be avoided because of increased traumatic danger. Children can break fragile jars and cut themselves in pieces. In those days, when the object of research will be glass, all objects from this material should be demonstrated to preschool children only in the presence of the teacher.
Construction in the preparatory group
Designing as one of the types of experimentation is great for children from 5 to 6 years. The preparatory group for this work is a fertile soil: preschool children like to interact with materials and forms, they know how they are both, they already do many things on their own and at the same time develop their skills. And what they still can not do is learn to do with the help of educators.
Construction in the preparatory group has as its goal the expansion of the child's ideas about the physical properties of objects. Also develops creativity (the ability to think creatively, non-standard).
In addition, in these classes the emotional-value sphere is necessarily brought up. The students remember where, in what real conditions, the actions that they are modeling in the classroom are taking place, and they learn to respect people of work. For example, building a house out of cubes, the preschooler correlates his own work with the activity of the real builder-mason. And starting from the hill construction on wheels, he considers himself an engineer of an automobile plant. Synthetic-analytical thinking also develops. The kid should compare the scheme of the future design with the material for its formation, correlate its actions with the proposed instruction and obtain the required result.
Children are interested in everything that surrounds them, they are ready to study anything, conducting experiments and experiments with objects and substances. The task of the teacher is to systematize their knowledge, which means that the lessons should be systematic, thematic. Experimentation in the preparatory group covers all spheres of life - from human senses to space travel.
Learn the stones
Within the framework of this lesson, children learn what stones are, where they come from, what they are, how they are used by people. It is important to talk about precious and semiprecious gems, building materials, etc. Different mountain and rock types are used in the work, which differ in color, texture, weight, etc. Part of the stones can be prepared in advance, and some can be gathered for a walk, supporting the children's interest to the activities of the expert.
In the development of the topic, it will be appropriate to conduct classes on ancient fossils (limestone, chalk, coal, corals), soil types and exposure to climatic conditions (wind, heat, frost).
Water and its properties
Water is a great material for conducting experiments with children. It can easily be frozen, evaporated, colored or aerated. In the water cycle, the preparatory group is given information about its location in nature, its role in the ecological balance, physical and chemical properties. In the future, the topic can continue, considering the inhabitants of the seas, lakes and rivers, discussing the problem of pollution of water areas on the planet. Children should come to the conclusion about the need to preserve clean water and offer ways to save it in everyday life.
The topic is revealed gradually, in this order:
- the hand of man (as an organ of touch, a means of knowing and committing actions);
- skin (its sensitivity, reaction to sun or water, vulnerability to heating or cooling);
- ears and nose (functions, significance, recommendations for keeping them healthy).
Acquaintance with the magnet, its characteristics and the interaction of the object with other materials.
These classes are very exciting, they remind us not even of experiments, but real tricks. Magnetics run each other towards each other or, on the contrary, in different directions, attracted in flight, through a table, paper or cloth. Particular attention can be drawn to the fact that metals that have been exposed to this object of experiment also partially acquire its properties.
Priming. Sand and clay
The similarities and differences of different types of soil, their textures, properties, composition, ways of human use are discussed. The subdivision into different types of sand (river, sea, large, small, silicate, building) and clay (yellow, red, black, blue, white, pottery, medicinal, etc.). Experimental samples can be dissolved in water, sieved, sculpted from them figures and evaluate the result.
The teacher introduces children to the properties of air, its role for man and all living things. The most obvious way to study this object will be inflatable balls. Also illustrate the movement of air ribbons, fluff, feathers and other light objects. You do not need anything exotic - even cotton balls or lumps of thin paper can serve this purpose.
Within the cycle of studies on this topic, the ratio of the weight of air of different temperatures is considered: the warm air rises, and the cold one goes down.
Sun and space
The educator gives the children an initial idea of the solar system, its structure, that the planets become colder, the more distant they are from the center. Here you can also talk about the constellations, including their symbolic designation. Children can imagine themselves as space travelers who are in weightlessness.
Electricity as a special kind of energy and appliances working on it - that's the topic of this lesson. Children remember and list household appliances and toys that they have, and reflect on what drives them. The danger of electricity, which "runs on wires", and the correct treatment of everything connected with it are separately mentioned.
Color and light
During the lesson, children will learn what color is, how it is produced by reflecting certain light rays. The notion of spectrum, which can be illustrated on the basis of the rainbow, is introduced.
Before you start or even plan any lesson, you need to be clear about what the result should be. Experimentation in the preparatory group of the DOW is not an exception. The most important thing for a teacher is to teach children to think independently, draw conclusions, understand cause-effect relationships. This is necessary for any training, and each of us learns his whole life.
One can not ignore the moral part of the educational process. It is important to instill in children a love for nature, for what surrounds them, the ability and desire to protect its purity and respect immunity.
Today's toddlers of the preparatory group are a generation who will live, build, invent and love the next fifty years. And very important is that they will take from childhood memories, what their conclusions will be about the surrounding reality.
The work of educators can be compared with the activity of tuners of musical instruments: how they will do it, and the melody of the children's souls and our common future will sound.