Depression in adolescents: manifestation and treatment
Teenage years are one of the most emotional when a schoolboy comes out of childhood, but does not always know what it means to be an adult. It is at this time, he is subject to various influences, contradictions, often disappointed in life situations, friends, people. If things go wrong at home, there is no support at home, then a teenager's depression develops. What to do with its appearance, how to recognize and conduct the necessary treatment in time, will be considered in this article.
Depression: definitions of the concept
Depression is an oppressed state characterized by a decline in strength, indifference to public life, a refusal to carry out important cases, assignments. This psychological state is considered a disease that must be treated. Quite often a person can not get out of depression on his own, so he needs outside help.
Like any disease, the depressive state has its own symptoms and causes. Adolescents, like adults, are subject to depression, which often becomes a factor of psychological disability or mortality. Therefore, it is so important to recognize this disease in order to help in time and to bring back the joy of life to the student.
Causes of teenage depression
The depressive state usually arises not from scratch, it can have both objective and subjective factors. The main causes of depression in adolescents are the following:
- Hormonal restructuring in children. During this period they change physically enough, the chemical processes that occur can cause mood swings, anxiety, anxiety.
- Failures in school life. Unsuccessfulness, rejection by classmates, "attacks" of teachers, increase emotional instability, make a teenager unhappy.
- Social status. If the child is not respected among peers, friends constantly joke about him, do not appreciate his opinions, then this attitude suppresses the student, makes him lonely.
- Unhappy first love. Adolescents react very sharply to the feelings that arise, which most often remain unanswered, that is why children have a critical attitude to their appearance, their body. They cease to respect themselves, believe that they have nothing to love, as a result, this attitude leads to despair and depression.
- High demands of parents. An overstated bar, unbearable for a schoolboy, makes him feel insecure, fear of punishment for an unachieved result, fear of even greater demands.
- Family trouble. Relationships in the family play an important role in the emotional state of the child. The development of depression in adolescents may be due to the indifferent attitude of parents who are not interested in the life of a schoolboy, who do not support him, who are not happy with the child's achievements.
Symptoms of a depressive state
Any disease has its signs, by which it can be recognized. Depression is manifested by the following symptoms:
- constant apathetic condition;
- the appearance of various pains (head, stomach, spinal);
- a lasting sense of fatigue, a decline in strength;
- a schoolboy can not concentrate on the performance of a specific task, becomes forgetful;
- there is sadness, anxiety, excessive anxiety;
- irresponsible or rebellious behavior - the teenager skips school, does not do homework, late sleeps on the street;
- sleeplessness at night, drowsiness during the day;
- sharp decline in school performance;
- avoidance of peers, ignoring of various activities;
- lack of motivation to fulfill any duties;
- eating disorders - a schoolboy either refuses food, or abuses it;
- excessive excitement, frequent outbursts of anger, irritability;
- obsession with the theme of death, afterlife.
In general, the signs of depression in adolescents cause changes in their behavior and mood. The students become withdrawn, spend most of their time in their own room, do not communicate with other people. Lose interest and motivation to previously loved pursuits, become gloomy and hostile.
Growing up, children change not only externally, but also internally, they look at the world differently, see and understand the new interconnections, relationships between people. Therefore, it is at this time that they are depressed.
The most peak period of depression in adolescents is the age from 13 to 19 years. At this time schoolchildren are exposed to stress, they have unstable and heightened emotionality, the surrounding world is perceived through a magnifying glass, all problems seem insoluble.
At the age of 15, severe and moderate forms of the disease are rare, but this does not mean that you do not need to pay attention to the depression of the child, because the easy stage can quickly move into a more severe one.
Children 10 to 12 years of age mainly exhibit such symptoms as general deterioration of health, digestion and nutrition are disturbed. In addition, the behavior of schoolchildren is changing, they become more closed, lonely, they can complain about boredom, they lose interest in previous studies.
Adolescents 12 to 14 years old hide their depressive condition, but it manifests itself through mental and motor retardation. Children can not clearly articulate their thoughts, there are difficulties in the communicative process. There are also such symptoms of depression in adolescents as underachievement, violation of discipline, anger, spending more time on the street. Schoolchildren are in constant tension and fear that they will be scolded, read them notations, humiliate.
The most problematic depressive states fall on 14-19 years, - the age when the students have difficulties in choosing the further path, passing the exams. In addition, they tend to think about the meaning of life, which they can not yet understand and find, such thoughts become self-sufficient in nature. During this period, the most acute symptoms of depression in adolescents are insomnia, anorexia, irritability, fear of making decisions, anxiety, and others.
Types of manifestation of depression
Depending on the behavioral characteristics, manifested symptoms, we can distinguish the following types of depressive state:
- Zombie - Looping a teenager in a certain occupation, which does not do any good, but is completely sterile. A vivid example is spending time in social networks, constantly updating the page in anticipation of a new event. The child turns into a "zombie", feeding on meaningless information.
- Riddle - the schoolboy does not show any signs of the disease, but he drastically changes in a short period of time. Transformations can affect appearance, habits, worldview.
- Victim - Depression in children and adolescents often takes the form of a victim when they, feeling worthless or impaired, easily fall under the influence of a more successful person, from their point of view, under the influence of which the depressive state only intensifies.
- Screen - schoolchildren behind visible success hide true experiences, fears, pain. This form of the disease can cause the child to constantly strive for success, but this will not bring satisfaction.
- Problem - teenagers do not feel the taste for life, they are all bored and uninteresting, they can always be in a depressed state. At the same time they study well, do not lead an antisocial way of life, but they do not have any spiritual harmony either.
- Rebel - this type of depression speaks of its protracted form. The schoolboy does not appreciate life, she irritates him, while he is practically not susceptible to suicidal behavior, as he too loves his ego and protects it.
Depression in boys and girls: gender differences
Adolescents in a depressed state, unable to stand it, often try to find some way out that will help alleviate suffering and dull the pain. At the same time, the answer to the question of how to get out of depression, to a teenager boy is seen in rebellious and antisocial behavior, and the girl - in self-closure or in causing even greater suffering.
Boys often contact a bad company, try all sorts of narcotics, alcohol, closing themselves in this way not only from personal problems, but also from the world as a whole, from its injustice and misunderstanding. In this state, the child feels completely happy. There are no duties, teachers and overly caring parents.
Depression in a teenage girl has several other manifestations. It withdraws into itself, it closes itself from external influences in its inner world, becomes unsociable, withdrawn, lonely. Often, this behavior is associated with low self-esteem, when the girl does not know what to respect herself for, what her attractiveness is, while she tries to stifle the pain through promiscuity. Most often, such an underestimation of oneself as an individual, of his opportunities comes from the family, when the child was little told about how wonderful and good she is. After all, in relation to the girl there is a lot of love, it will not spoil her, she will not make a hypocrite.
However, similar exits from this state only worsen the situation: after the end of the drug or sexual intercourse, the pain becomes even stronger, self-esteem falls to zero. Therefore, it is important to start dealing with depression in adolescents in time to avoid voluntary withdrawal from life.
Treatment of depression
If you find the above symptoms, you need to consult a doctor, so that he determines a competent treatment, which can be medicated or be of an advisory nature.
From drugs usually prescribed various sedatives, which do not have a harmful effect on the body of the child as a whole, do not lead to drowsiness and renunciation. Any medication should be taken strictly according to the doctor's prescription in order to avoid various unpleasant consequences.
However, the most often it is enough to conduct a course of psychological consultations, where the treatment of depression in adolescents is carried out through the search for the causes of the disease, learning to recognize negative thoughts and the ability to cope with them. Such consultations are held separately with the child and with the whole family, if the cause of the disease is a difficult relationship with relatives.
Parental assistance to adolescents
The main role in the prevention of depression in children is assigned to their parents, whose behavior and attitude will help either to not know this ailment at all, or to deal with it easily. To protect a teenager from a depressed state, parents need to choose the following upbringing tactics:
- It is not recommended to constantly punish or humiliate a child, otherwise he will grow insecure, clamped, will consider himself useless to anyone.
- Do not over-patronize children, make decisions for them, which provokes teenage depression, the symptoms of which are manifested in the inability to make choices, to be independent.
- You can not pinch the child, restrict his freedom, he must feel his independence, but at the same time know that his parents are always there.
- To give the chance to choose the creative circle, sports section, friends, it is not necessary to impose your unfulfilled dreams on the kid.
- It is necessary to talk with the child, it is best to do this through joint activities. Here it is recommended to choose what one likes to do both for a teenager and parents: it can be family skiing, skating, creating an interesting craft, reading books and much more.
- If the child shares his difficulties, it is important to listen to him, in no case can we ridicule the problem, even trivial. It is better to discuss everything and find a solution.
- Constant moralizing can also cause depression in adolescents, so counseling is recommended by deeds, not words, it is necessary to be an example for your child.
Signs of suicidal behavior
Teenage depression can take a rather dangerous form - voluntary withdrawal from life. All problems that arise in schoolchildren are considered insoluble and insurmountable, causing unbearable pain. Among them are the most popular ones: lack of success in school, unrequited love, problems in the family, constant setbacks in various matters. Teenagers, unable to withstand such emotional tension, are taking an extreme step - suicide, which solves all difficult issues at once.
Among the main signs of this behavior are the following:
- lack of faith in a good and joyful future, the child loses all hope;
- indifferent attitude to yourself, depression in adolescence is manifested through such phrases as "I do not need anyone, no one cares about me";
- the schoolboy ceases to do what he likes, loses interest in learning;
- often starts a conversation about death or even threatens to kill himself.
If a teenager shows at least one of the above signs, you can not leave it without attention, you need to talk with the child or go with him to a consultation with a psychologist.
Underestimation and reevaluation of the situation
Depressive state is not always easy to recognize, but you do not need to go to extremes, which consist in underestimation or, conversely, in reevaluating what is happening.
All teenagers undergo psychological stress, this is a normal process, having the same symptoms as depression. However, it is less prolonged, the child does not close in itself, easily goes to the contact. In this case, do not overestimate the situation and guide the student to a doctor, a sufficiently confidential conversation at home. Here, parents can tell about themselves, how they experienced these or those problems at this age.
At the same time, children who really need help are left without attention, parents are letting the problem into their own right, there are no signs of depression in adolescents. Here there is an underestimation of the situation, the child remains alone with his problems, which is fraught with psychological disorders or suicide.
Therefore, it is important to correctly identify the first and second, provide them with support and, if necessary, treatment.
Thus, the depressive state is quite common among adolescents, which is due to their internal and external changes, when children are not ready to accept new rules that are dictated by adult life, can not understand the established relationships between people, find their place in society. The development of depression in adolescents is dangerous for their mental health and life, since not rendered help in time, parental or medical, can provoke suicide as the only way out of the situation.