Depression in adolescents: manifestations and treatment
The teenage years are some of the most emotional, when the student comes out of childhood, but do not always know what it means to be an adult. At this time, it is exposed to various influences, contradictions, often disillusioned with life situations, friends, people. If things at school are bad, no home, no support, depression in teenager. What to do with her appearance as a time to recognize and to perform the necessary treatment will be discussed in this article.
Depression: definition of
Depression depression characterized by lack of energy, indifference to social life, the refusal to perform important things, instructions. This psychological condition is considered a disease that must be treated. Quite often people cannot get out of depression, so he needs outside help.
Just like any disease, depression has its own symptoms and causes. Teenagers, like adults, are prone to depression, which often becomes a factor of psychological disability or mortality. Therefore, it is important to recognize the disease in time to help and return to the student the joy of life.
Causes of teenage depression
Depression usually occurs not on an empty place, it can have both objective and subjective factors. The main causes of depression in adolescents the following:
- Hormonal changes in the body children. During this period, they quite vary greatly physically occurring chemical processes may cause mood swings, anxiety, anxiety.
- Failure in school life. Academic failure, rejection by classmates, the "attacks" teachers, increase emotional instability, make the teenager miserable.
- Social status. If the child is not respected among peers, friends constantly make fun of him not appreciate his opinion, such an attitude inhibits a student does it alone.
- Unrequited first love. Teens are very sensitive to the feelings that often remain unanswered, and the children, there is a critical attitude towards their appearance and body. They cease to respect themselves, believe that they are not something to love, in the end, this attitude leads to despair and depression.
- High demands on parents. Standards are too high, excessive for the student, gives him a sense of insecurity, the fear of punishment for failures a result, the fear of even greater requirements.
- Family insecurity. Family relationships play an important role in the emotional condition of the child. The development of depression in adolescents may be due to indifferent attitude of parents who are not interested in the life of the student, not supporting it, not rejoicing in the achievements of the child.
The symptoms of depression
Any disease has its own signs by which it can be recognized. Depression is manifested by the following symptoms:
- permanent apathetic state
- the emergence of various pains (head, stomach, spinal cord)
- persistent fatigue, loss of strength
- student can not concentrate on a specific task becomes forgetful
- appear sadness, anxiety, excessive anxiety
- irresponsible or rebellious behavior as a teenager ditching school, not doing homework, late night spends time on the street
- insomnia at night, sleepiness during the day
- a sharp decline in school performance
- avoidance of peers, ignoring various events
- the lack of motivation to perform any duties
- eating disorders — the student either refuses to eat or abuse it
- excessive irritability, frequent angry outbursts, irritability
- obsession with themes of death, afterlife.
In General, the signs of depression in teenagers cause changes in their behavior and mood. Students become closed, most of the time in my room, not talking to other people. Losing interest and motivation to previously favorite activities, become dark and hostile.
Growing up, children are changing not only externally but also internally, they are different look at the world, see and understand new relationships, relationships between people. Therefore, at this time they are prone to depression.
Most peak period of occurrence of depression in teenagers is age between 13 to 19 years. At this time, the students prone to stress, they have an unstable and heightened emotionality, the world is perceived through a magnifying glass, all the problems seem intractable.
At the age of 15 are rare heavy and medium forms of the disease, but this does not mean that we should not pay attention to the distress of the child, as easy phase fast enough can go into more severe.
Children 10 — 12 years mainly exhibit symptoms such as General ill health, impaired digestion and nutrition. In addition, changing the behavior of students, they become more withdrawn, lonely, you can complain of boredom, losing interest in previous activities.
Teens 12 — 14 years hiding their depression, however it manifests itself through the mental and motor retardation. Children can not articulate their thoughts, challenges arise in the communication process. Also manifest such symptoms of depression in adolescents as academic failure, misconduct, anger, spending most time on the street. Students are in constant tension and fear that they will criticize, read them a lecture, humiliate.
The most problematic of the depressive state have 14 — 19 years old — the age when the students encounter difficulties on the way forward, the examinations. In addition, they tend to think about the meaning of life, who are unable to understand and to find, such thoughts become self-sufficient character. In this period, the most acute may manifest such symptoms of depression in teenagers as insomnia, poor appetite, irritability, fear of decision-making, anxiety, and others.
Types of symptoms of depression
Depending on the behavioral characteristics shown characteristics, we can distinguish the following types of depression:
- Zombies — looping of a teenager on a specific session, not carrying any good, and are absolutely barren. A striking example is the holding time in social networks, the constant page refresh in anticipation of the new event. The child becomes a "zombie" eating meaningless information.
- Mystery — student shows no signs of the disease, however, it changes dramatically in a short period of time. Transformation can touch the appearance, habits, Outlook.
- The victim — depression in children and adolescents often takes the form of a victim when they, sensing his worthlessness or inferiority, are easily influenced by the more successful, from their point of view, the person under the influence of which depression is only strengthened.
- Screen — students at a visible success hiding the true feelings, fears, pain. This form of the disease can lead to the fact that the child will constantly strive to success, but the satisfaction it will bring.
- The problem — teenagers do not feel the taste of life, they are all boring and uninteresting, they may be always in a depressed state. With good study, don't lead asocial way of life, however, and spiritual harmony in these children.
- Rebel — this type of depression talking about her lingering form. Student does not value life, it's annoying and suicidal behavior it is practically unaffected, as too loves his Ego and protects him.
Depression in boys and girls: sex differences
Teenagers who are depressed, not soaking it, often trying to find a solution that will help to alleviate the suffering and stop the pain. The answer to the question of how to get out of depression, the adolescent boy is seen in buntovskikh and antisocial behaviour, and the girl — in isolation or in the infliction of even greater suffering.
Boys most often associated with bad company, trying all sorts of drugs, alcohol, closing in this way not only from personal challenges but also from the world at large, from its injustice and misunderstanding. In this condition, the child feels absolutely happy. There are no responsibilities, teachers and overly caring parents.
Depression in adolescent girls has a few other symptoms. She retreats into himself, closed from external influence in his inner world, becomes unsociable, withdrawn, lonely. Often this behavior is associated with low self-esteem when she does not know what self-respect, what is its appeal, however, she tries to numb the pain through promiscuity. In most cases, this underestimating of themselves as individuals, their capabilities comes from the family when the child had little to say about how good it is and good. After all, regarding girls, lots of love do not happen, it will not spoil it will not make a prude.
However, such outputs from this state, only worsen the situation: after the action of the drug or intercourse pain becomes even stronger self-esteem drops to zero. Therefore, it is important to begin to fight depression in adolescents, in order to avoid voluntary withdrawal from life.
Treatment of depression
Upon detection of the above symptoms, you should consult with your doctor to determined competent treatment, which may be medicated or to be consultative.
Of the drugs usually prescribe various sedatives, which do not have a harmful effect on the child's body in General, not lead to sleepiness and utrachennoy. Any medications must be taken strictly according to prescription, to avoid various unpleasant consequences.
However, most often enough to carry out a course of psychological consultations, where treatment of depression in adolescents through the search of the causes of disease, the doctrine of recognition of negative thoughts and ability to cope with them. Such consultations shall be conducted separately with the child and with the whole family, if the causes of the disease difficult relationships with family.
Parent help teen
The main role in the prevention of depression in children is given their parents, the behaviour and attitudes which will help either do not know this disease, or easy to deal with it. To protect your teenager from depression, parents need to choose the following tactics education:
- It is not recommended to continuously punish or humiliate the child, otherwise he'll grow up insecure, uptight, would feel useless.
- Should not be over-protective of children, make decisions for them, and provoked teenage depression, symptoms which are manifested in the inability to make choices, to be independent.
- It is impossible to clamp the child, to limit his freedom, he needs to feel independent, but know that parents are always close by.
- To give the opportunity to choose creative circle, sports section, friends, it is not necessary to impose baby their unfulfilled dreams.
- You need to talk with your child, this is best done through joint activities. It is recommended to choose something like to do and the teenager and parents: this family can be skiing, skating, creating interesting crafts, reading books and more.
- If a child shares their difficulties, it is important to listen to him, in any case can not make fun of the problem, even trifling. It is better to discuss and find a solution.
- The constant moralizing may also cause depression in adolescents, so it is recommended to teach by deeds, not words, should be an example for your child.
Signs of suicidal behavior
Teenage depression can take a fairly dangerous form of voluntary withdrawal from life. All the problems that arise for students, are considered insoluble and insurmountable, causing unbearable pain. Among them the most popular: underachievement at school, unrequited love, family problems, repeated failures in different cases. Teenagers, not withstanding the emotional stress, go on an extreme step — suicide, which solves all the difficult questions again.
Among the main features of this behavior are the following:
- a lack of belief in a good and happy future, the child loses all hope
- indifferent attitude, depression in adolescence is manifested through phrases such as "I am worthless, no one to care"
- the student ceases to engage in Hobbies, losing interest in learning
- often starts talking about death or even threatening to kill himself.
If a teenager appears at least one of the above symptoms, then you can't leave it unattended, you should talk to the child or to go with him to a grief counselor.
Underestimating and reassessment of the situation
Depression is not always easy to recognize, but do not need to go to extremes that are underestimating or, conversely, to reassess what is happening.
All teenagers are exposed to psychological stress, a normal process that has the same characteristics as depression. However, it is shorter, the child is not closed in itself, easy to contact. In this case, we should not overestimate the situation and lead the student to the doctor, it is enough confidential conversation at home. Here parents can talk about themselves, how they experienced certain problems at this age.
At the same time, children who do need help are left without attention, the parents let the issue slide, signs of depression in teenagers are not seen. Here is underestimating the situation, the child is left alone with their problems, with psychological disorders or suicide.
Therefore, it is important to identify correctly the first and second, to support them and, if necessary, treatment.
Thus, depression is quite common among adolescents, due to their internal and external changes when the children are not ready to adopt new rules that dictates adulthood, are unable to understand the established relationships between people, to find their place in society. The development of depression in adolescents is dangerous for their mental health and life, as it is not provided timely assistance, the parent or medical, may provoke suicide as the only way out of the situation.