What is adolescence: definition, age limits
When thinking about what is youth, immediately come to mind romantic songs, poetry poems, meetings under the moon, high hopes and unlimited opportunities. Nevertheless, it is just an outer shell. Youth is a rather interesting and difficult period for psychologists to study.
What is adolescence: definition
Youth is a stage of the physical maturation of a person, as well as the development of the personality that lies between childhood and adulthood. From the point of view of psychology, it is a transition from the dependence inherent in the child to the independence and responsibility inherent in the formed people. From the point of view of physiology at this point, physical and sexual maturation is completed. Also, the notion of "youth" or "youth" is characterized by the achievement of social maturity. Age boundaries are determined by the interval from 14 to 18 years, if it is a matter of domestic psychology. Foreign specialists, however, believe that youth begins at the age of 16.
Approaches to the problem of youth
"What is youth?" Is one of the oldest questions that psychologists have ever asked. Despite a huge number of theoretical developments and practical research, this problem remains to this day. It can be considered in terms of the following approaches:
- Biogenetic theory draws attention to physiological, as well as socio-psychological factors. This refers to the process of maturation of the body and personality, which occurs at certain stages, which are universal. This theory in its own way defines the moment from which people can be classified as "youth". Age boundaries - the beginning of puberty (12 years) and until full age (25 years), a person is considered young, subject to romanticism.
- Sociogenetic theory explains the importance of youth, based on the place that a person occupies in the structure of society. There is a close connection between the natural formation of the personality and the properties of the environment. At a young age, there is a formation of a worldview, behavioral characteristics, as well as a circle of communication. At the same time, the age range is not specified, since they are strictly individual.
- The psychogenetic approach pays attention to psychological processes. This direction concentrates attention on emotions, which determine behavioral features. At each new stage, the personality acquires all the new properties that were not previously available. Youth is the fifth stage. it is at this moment that a person realizes his individuality and uniqueness.
- The integrated approach simultaneously takes into account all factors (it is guided by domestic psychologists) when defining the concept of "youth". Age is measured by the period from the onset of puberty to the final formation of personality.
Any period in a person's life is connected with any activity. What is youth? First of all, this is the choice of the further life path, in which professional self-determination occupies a special place. Thus, the choice of the future occupation becomes the central problem of the youthful period.
Taking into account the need to acquire a profession, a young age is accompanied by continuous training. Moreover, it becomes more profound and conscious than at an earlier age. It is characterized by the following features:
- wide and deep perception of educational material, aimed at the formation of future professional knowledge;
- in addition to passive perception of information, the individual resorts to an active and independent search for it.
Social motives of adolescence
Childhood, youth, maturity - each of the periods of a person's life is characterized by certain motives that determine his activities. Young people are full of aspirations and hopes for the future. In this regard, they are guided by the following factors:
- conviction of the need for continuous development, which is achieved through continuing education;
- professional self-determination, caused by the need to prepare for further independent life;
- social motivation, caused by the desire to benefit others.
Factors for choosing a future profession
Given that a young man in his youth should choose a future activity, the psychologists pay great attention to motives. So, the main factors of choice are the following:
- social - prestige and the opportunity to take a worthy place in society;
- personal - the presence of qualities and character traits required for a particular profession;
- material - the opportunity to ensure for themselves and their families a worthy existence.
The mass of vital problems is characterized by a period such as youth. The years of life of a young person are made up of a number of key issues, the main ones being the following:
- a preliminary choice of the future profession, which consists of a life position, abilities and a priority area of knowledge;
- adherence to the values that define public consciousness, as well as interpersonal relations;
- the growth of social activity, which is not a banal interest, but a desire to take a direct part in events;
- formation of a world outlook on fundamental issues;
- expansion of the sphere of interests, as well as vital requests, which leads to the need for more material resources;
- social orientation of the individual, which involves finding a place in society;
- the search for an answer to the question of the meaning of life and the purpose of man in it.
Forming the personality of the young man
A young man at a certain moment becomes on the path of becoming self-consciousness, which is inextricably linked with the formation of the so-called "I". It occurs in the following areas:
- the formation of a different attitude to the emotional sphere (feelings become not just a reaction to external events, but personal characteristics);
- awareness of the irreversible flow of time (this fact causes the young man to think more seriously about his future and drawing up an individual life plan);
- formation of a holistic view not only of one's body and inner structure, but also moral, volitional and intellectual qualities.
In the period of adolescence, a young man begins to reconsider relations with others, in particular with peers. So, they fall into two categories - friends and comrades. The first are the most approximate, those who deserve loyalty and respect. With all the other peers, young people build comradely relations, which mean polite treatment, mutual respect and mutual assistance.
Tactics of communication and building relationships with peers are built, largely based on the future well-being (both psychological and physical). The most interesting and "useful" people remain in the circle of communication. The rest are in a kind of emotional isolation. Nevertheless, often youthful friendship is idealized and illusory.
Also for a young age is characterized by the emergence of such a deep feeling as love. This is due not only to the completion of puberty, but also with the desire to have a close person close to whom you can share problems and happy events. The beloved person is a kind of ideal both in terms of personal and in terms of external qualities.
Youth in the modern world
What is youth? This is a dynamic category that is not permanent. With the passage of time, with the development of society, it significantly changes. So, in connection with the rapidly growing acceleration, youth comes much earlier. But social maturity comes a little later. This is to some extent due to the fact that modern parents take care of children much longer.
As at any other time, young people are eager to work with the goal of independently providing themselves with cash. Nevertheless, the current trend is that young men do not want to do "dirty work", which brings small incomes and determines low social status. There is a tendency to desire to get everything at once.
Youth is the most beautiful time in a person's life. It is connected not only with romantic feelings and dreams, but also with great opportunities in terms of organizing their future. Research and recommendations of psychologists help to direct the activities of young people in the right direction and encourage them to make the right decisions.