What should a child know in 3 years? Age features of children 3 years old
Most modern parents pay much attention to the early development of children, understanding that up to three years the child is easily trained in the game, and after it becomes much more difficult to absorb new information without a good initial base. And before many adults the question arises: what should a child know in 3 years? The answer to it, as well as all the features of the development of children at this age, you will learn from this article.
Caution: the crisis of three years
The crisis of three years is considered one of the first age-related crises of the child, for all it proceeds in different ways, but still takes place. He is associated with the fact that at this age begins the process of becoming a self-awareness of the baby - the old picture of reality becomes obsolete, and in its place comes a new one. In order to avoid unnecessary conflicts, stress and know how to help a child during this period, it is important to understand the following age characteristics of children of 3 years:
- There is a need for independent activity: the child is separated from adults, and reality, previously limited mainly to objects and the family circle, becomes the world of adults.
- The child begins to oppose himself to adults, stops listening and protests against the norms of behavior vaccinated earlier.
- It is during this period that the baby learns the difference between "want" and "should", and deliberate actions begin to prevail over the impulsive.
- At this age, self-esteem is actively developing, which is greatly influenced by the attitude of adults.
But apart from the complexities of behavior, there are useful features of the child that increase the learning ability of the child for 3 years:
- Communicative readiness: the child begins to interact with other people, guided by rules and norms.
- Cognitive readiness: imaginative thinking is formed, through which children are able to think about subjects and conduct comparative analysis, even when they do not see them.
- Emotional development: the child begins to manage emotions, including coping with aggression.
- There is the ability to count and read.
Interacting with the surrounding reality, the child learns the world and develops, the task of adults is to help him. When teaching, it is important to take into account and use the zone of proximal development: something a child can do with the help of adults, and what he has learned to do on his own must become a step in time.
Assessment of speech development
Up to five years, the speech is developing very intensively, so it is important to monitor whether the child is not behind, and if necessary, to help him. To assess the development of speech, there is the following list of what a child should know in 3 years:
- The vocabulary is about a thousand words.
- In the designation of objects, people and animals, full-fledged words are used, rather than sounds or shortened versions.
- Distinguishes and correctly uses prefixal verbs (ran, ran away, ran out).
- He knows how to name objects, using generalizing words ("fruit" instead of "pear" and "apple").
- Master the names of parts of objects (can say that the pan has a bottom and handles).
- Compares words and understands what synonyms are.
- He comes up with his own words from already known to him.
- Pay attention to the incorrect pronunciation of other children, while the sounds can also be spoken incorrectly.
- She knows how to say that any adult can understand him.
How to develop a coherent speech
The further development of the speech of the child of 3 years includes: increasing the vocabulary, training the correctness of the pronunciation of sounds and constructing sentences. The main goal of all classes is the improvement of coherent meaningful speech. For this, you can practice special magazines and manuals with colorful pictures and exercises.
Unfortunately, you can not count on a long assiduity of the child, but you can memorize the basic tasks for children of 3 years and perform them using concepts from real life:
- At home, you can call items and select generalizing words using toys, shoes, utensils and any other things as an example.
- On a walk, you can tell your child adjectives and ask them to find items corresponding to them, for example, "high" (the kid points to the house) or "red" (maybe a car). The advantage of this exercise is that the kid can find in the real world many more suitable things than in the pictures.
- On the street and at home, you can ask the child questions about objects that he sees, for example, where they are, what color, why others are needed.
In three years the child should be able to remember and repeat 3-4 words, which the adult said. Thanks to this ability you can begin to learn poetry. They train memory, attention, develop speech, enrich the vocabulary, expand ideas about the world, and also help the child to grow purposeful and be able to carry out the business to the end.
The rhyme for children of 3 years should not be too large: two quatrains are sufficient. Before starting to learn a poem, an adult should expressively tell it and discuss the content with the child. If you want, you can draw a picture. Each quatrain learns according to one pattern: the adult slowly pronounces the first line and asks the child to repeat after him until he remembers it. Then the second line learns and connects to the first, then the third is added to the first two. Then the last one is memorized, and the first quatrain is ready. When the two parts are learned, they unite, and the verse is read in its entirety.
Easy rhyme for children 3 years old about the onset of winter:
In the morning I went to the window
He was surprised: "Well, well!
I slept in the fall,
Overnight the world has changed!
Fur coats are white
Both trees and houses.
This means, in fact,
At night, winter came to us! "
The very first mathematical concepts
The first acquaintance with mathematics begins much earlier than it seems, and on how much it will be successful, further relationships of the child with this complex science depend. The following list of what the child should know in 3 years in mathematics will help to evaluate the completeness of the presentations:
- Be able to compare objects in width, length, thickness and height.
- Use in the speech the concepts of "a lot" and "one", competently coordinate them with nouns.
- Be able to count up to three fingers.
- Know and call the basic geometric shapes: square, circle, triangle and compare objects in shape.
- Know and use in speech concepts: small, large, smaller and larger.
- Be able to compare the number of items.
- To be able to find the subject of a pair on a given basis.
Checking knowledge of the world around you
Some parents underestimate the possibilities of their three-year-old children and do not give the required amount of workload, and intensified studies begin in the period of preparation for school and face the unwillingness of the child to learn, because cognitive activity has already faded. To prevent such problems, it is important to find out in time what the child should know about in 3 years about the world around him and, if necessary, fill in the gaps.
A child at this age must:
- To know how domestic and wild animals look and are called.
- Understand who birds, insects and fish are, and how to name three or four representatives of each class.
- Know three or four names of trees and flowers.
- Be able to distinguish between fruits, vegetables, mushrooms and berries, as well as know their main names.
- Have an idea of such natural phenomena as wind, rain, rainbows, snow.
- To know and be able to call parts of the day.
- Have an understanding of the materials from which the surrounding things are made.
Assess the development of thinking and motor skills
A child in three years should be able to perform the following actions:
- collect an image of 2-4 parts;
- see and explain the discrepancy in the picture;
- to define an extra subject and justify your choice;
- explain what things look like and what are different;
- cut the paper with scissors;
- to separate the pieces from the clay and make sausages and balls of them;
- draw dots, circles and various types of lines;
- engage in finger gymnastics.
How to develop fine motor skills
The most useful for the development of motor skills is molding for children 3 years old, but to show interest in it, the child begins much earlier, for example, when he enthusiastically smears the porridge on the table. You can sculpt it from plasticine or puff pastry. Classes also help to develop speech and consolidate existing ideas about the world around us. You can sculpt if you want though every day, but twice a week is enough. To make the classes more fun and not too difficult for a child, you can make blanks from paper foundations and pick up suitable stories or poems.
The purpose of the first experience with plasticine: to teach the child to tear off pieces from him and sculpt them on paper, you can draw trees and decorate them with colorful leaves. In the second lesson you need to learn how to roll balls, you can decorate the Christmas tree with New Year's toys. During the third lesson the child is practiced in rolling sausages, from them you can make a rainbow or Olympic rings. For three years of age, these simple techniques are sufficient.
Of course, all children are individual and have a different level of abilities. But it depends on the parents how these abilities will be used. It is important to closely monitor the child's successes, assess its level of development and constantly give new and more complex, but no less interesting tasks for children of 3 years in a game form.