April 12 — the day that changed history
Man has always looked to the sky. Imagined worlds, talked about the existence of higher beings, living somewhere far, far away, came up with a hypothesis-legends about creatures from heaven. And only a few decades ago, the first time people were able to look beyond the horizon.
12 April 1961 is the day that changed the history of mankind. On this day the inhabitants of the Earth challenged the space.
How it all began?
About the stars people wanted for a long time, but the first attempts to reach them began to take only in 1957 when the Earth's orbit was launched the first artificial satellite. In November of the same year went into space dog Laika, it began with her study of the effects of weightlessness on living organisms. However, to return to their home planet she was not meant to be. Experiments with overcoming weightlessness continued with the launches of artificial satellites of the Earth and the Sun, the famous Belka and Strelka, sending rockets to Venus, linking up with distant from Earth objects. The work was enormous, to the development of the new science of space exploration, invested a lot of money, and the result for all humanity, not particularly interested in the conquest of outer space, 12 April 1961 – the day was sent into space in the first person.
Once Yuri Gagarin and imagined that from a simple caster (namely this specialty, he has mastered after school and Institute), he will become the first cosmonaut in the world. His fate was changed by the army, where he served in aviation. After demobilization, Gagarin decided to become a test of new flight equipment in the Soviet Union (unofficially, of course) called spaceships. And a year later began preparation for the first manned flight into space. Future astronauts took the most serious medical examination, trained on the most modern at the time machines that allow them to maximally adapt to conditions of weightlessness. Four days before the fateful events of the pilot of the "East" was appointed Yuri Gagarin. April 12, from Baikonur launched the first ship with man on Board.
But the flight itself ended not quite as planned. In space, Gagarin was a little over an hour, all went well, the astronaut gave a report on the status of your ship, but then the braking system somehow failed. In the end, "Vostok" landed not in a specific in preparation for the flight and the small village in the Saratov region – for it 12 April has clearly become a very memorable date. Today there is a Museum of Yuri Gagarin, where you can learn more about the astronaut, and how fateful for the whole Earth flight.
The establishment of the holiday
On the same day, the whole world has heard about a breakthrough in the field of Astronautics. Of course, to repeat the feat of Gagarin immediately tried America. But the first word in the space left for the Soviet Union. 12 APR 1962 became the day of memory of a feat of Yuri Gagarin. But after some six years, since 1968, began to celebrate the world day of Astronautics. More than any manned flight beyond earth's atmosphere is not awarded of such honour, even the famous moon landing of Neil Armstrong.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union to raise the issue of the abolition of this celebration, no one dared. In 1995, the Russian government officially approved the celebration on April 12. Since 2001, on the world stage, he became known as the International day of human flight into space.
How to celebrate the Day of cosmonautics?
It is difficult to talk about some certain traditions of celebration on April 12. Of course, the schools held various events dedicated to not only the first manned flight into space, but space development in General. Various public organizations organize "round tables", debates and many other discussions where young people can not only learn more about the history of the holiday, but also to discuss the trends of development of science in this direction. April 12, cosmonautics Day, is a great opportunity to talk to those who are really interested in space exploration, and can tell you a lot of new and sometimes completely unexpected.
One of the good ideas for the celebration of cosmonautics Day in school is an open event, in which tells about the flight of Yuri Gagarin and the preparations for it, but also about the long road to the creation of the first rocket, the hypotheses related to the cosmos, the evolution of human knowledge about the world and many others. Some teachers unfairly overlooked that is not always the result is important, the path to it is sometimes much more fun than dry facts. Moreover, in any case can not detract from the merits of scientists, without which the development of Astronautics in principle, it would not be possible.
It is difficult to compare 12 APR such large-scale festivals like New year, children's Day, Day of struggle against AIDS is celebrated throughout the world. Many do not even remember immediately when the first man went into space. But mastering extraterrestrial space gave, gives and will give to mankind much more. While we can not imagine all the possibilities that will open up to us with further research. Maybe today the dreams of the colonization of Mars sound utopian, but one hundred years ago, no one could not assume that people will be able to leave the Earth. All ahead. And in any case we must not forget that April 12 – cosmonautics Day, the day when man has defied the Universe.