Age features of preschool children: growth and development of the child
The upbringing of the preschooler places great responsibility on the adult's shoulders. It is at this age that children like sponges are able to absorb all the information offered, the main features of the character are laid, and the development of a person is taking place. Age features of pre-school children often cause adults to misinterpret the actions of children, to demand from them more than possible. This leads to mistakes in education. In addition, these errors can even injure the child's fragile psyche. Make him what he is not. You can avoid this if you try to understand the child at this stage of growing up.
Demand no more than you can yourself
First of all, age-related psychological features of preschool-age children are based on copying the behavior of an adult. This leads to several problems:
- The child seeks adult action, which is not yet capable of accomplishing. For example, a daughter looks at how her mother slices vegetables. Mom is the most important person in a girl's life, so it goes without saying that the baby wants to repeat everything for her. She wants to take the knife, but meets mom's fright and demands never to dare touch the knife. Mom's reaction is understandable from the point of view of an adult. But for a child this is not so. Does your mother do something bad? Then her authority is undermined. Do not touch the knives. is this an adult occupation? Then the child wants to repeat this even more, but he already knows that his mother will not approve of this action, so you need to do it secretly. The solution to the problem is very simple - take the child to her and cut the vegetables, controlling his hand. Explain that the knife is very sharp and while the baby should touch it only with his mother. Interest is satisfied, contact with my mother has reached a new level, besides, my mother has become an even more magical creature, because she cope even with sharp knives.
- Do not push the child to compromise. "Eat porridge and I'll give you a candy", "take it away in the room or do not go play". Age features of pre-school children do not allow them to understand the difference between an adult and a child. You put forward a compromise, and soon the child will say: "I will not eat unless you cook pancakes!". It turns out that parents themselves teach their kids to make demands. Instead, you can cheerfully start cleaning toys to race. Or dedicate the baby in detail: "If we do not remove the toys quickly, we'll be late for the circus," and so on.
- Do not demand what you yourself can not. There is a wonderful parable about the wise man to whom a woman came and asked her to teach her son, to convince him not to eat sugar with a spoon, because it is harmful. The sage asked the woman to come in a week, then a week later. And at the next meeting he said to the boy, "Do not eat sugar, it is harmful to your body." Why could not the sage utter this simple phrase at the first meeting? The thing is that he himself was very fond of sugar and before giving such instruction, he had to get rid of the bad habit himself. That is, urging the child not to eat sausages, do not keep them in your fridge.
These are 3 age features of preschool children, which become a stumbling block in relations with adults.
Recently, a lot of methods of early development have appeared. Many parents take it as a newfangled trend, they do not consider this to be important. But it is this age period that allows you to memorize the maximum of the information offered. Age features of pre-school children can stimulate different areas of the brain, by developing fine motor skills, hand massage, etc.
It is proved that children with well developed fine motor skills begin to speak much earlier than their peers. Achieved the effect due to the impact on the active points located on the brush. The same applies to the ability to learn languages.
Very often you can hear from parents of preschool children that the child falls into causeless hysterics. In fact, this is simply impossible. To get rid of nervous seizures, you should find the reason that is always:
- Lack of a regime. Age features of children of younger preschool age make them very sensitive to time. When a child has absolutely no day regimen, he goes to bed at different times, has no regular classes, his nervous system strains because of constant changes.
- Fatigue. Single cases of hysterics occur often due to fatigue. After a long journey, if you had to get up early, etc.
- Lack of attention. Adolescents express this inadequate, in the opinion of adults, by behavior. Young children try to attract attention with hysterics, constant tears.
Getting rid of hysteria is simple enough, you just need to determine the cause and eliminate it. But be patient. In the disturbed mode, you will have to endure the nervousness of the baby for about a week. An increase in attention can not be a single action either.
Socialization of preschoolers
In the period from 3 to 7 years, the child is actively studying the society. He begins to strive for companies on the sites, is interested in peers and older children. At this age it is recommended to start visiting a kindergarten.
When choosing a company for a child, consider the age and individual characteristics of children of preschool age. Some children tend to one-year-olds, while others prefer a society of older children. Parents should try to give the child exactly the society that he needs. Then the baby will develop many times faster.
The development of speech
Age features of preschool children extend to speech. In 3 years the child begins to build offers and try to express their desires. But he does not yet have enough words to express his emotions and feelings.
In addition, contextual speech is developing, i.e. ability to tell the sequence of actions, describe their attitude to what is happening. At 7 years, the child's words reserve is about 3000-5000 words. At this age, the development of speech depends on the attention paid to the child. You need to play speech games, describe your actions and the child, discuss emotions.
The development of the imagination
The baby quietly sleeps in the dark, does not react to the spider passing by and, in general, has no fears, except one - to lose mother. By the age of three, the imagination begins to develop, and with it fears appear. Fear of darkness, now every shadow finds sinister outlines, can frighten insects, there are new interesting games. Age features of children of senior preschool age do not allow them to distinguish between the imaginary and the real.
Children need support, in sympathy and understanding. Help them overcome their fears, take them by the hand and go along to the frightening shadow, show that it is absolutely not terrible. Think of the fears of another image - turn the evil owl into a beautiful firebird. Remember that the child's imagination is very pliable.
Age features of children of senior preschool age
In the senior preschool age the child develops:
- Ability to get along in the team.
The development of each of these aspects depends more on the parents.
Exercises for the development of memory is very much. The simplest of them - remember the food in the refrigerator, close it and retell the contents. Thus, visual memory is actively developing.
Before school it is recommended to learn poems with children. It develops verbal memory, that is, the ability to memorize text. In school this skill is very useful.
The features of the age development of children of senior preschool age largely depend on the degree of child care. From the ability to carefully listen to the task depends on the quality of its performance. Attention promotes perseverance, which is very important in school life.
Development of attention is promoted by quiet classes, suggesting sitting on the spot. For example, you can sit with the child at the window and count cars of the same color. This will develop the stability of attention, teach you to concentrate on one particular action.
Thinking at this age is a "see-create image" system. The child thinks about what he sees, reflects on this image. Significantly stimulates the thinking of mathematics.
Will at preschool age
The development of the will is promoted by achievements. And vice versa, if something does not work out for a long time, the child gives up, it ceases to arouse his interest. Remember that the features of the age development of preschool children are very individual. It is not possible to set certain frames. One child can pore over the writing of the letter 30 minutes, another barely survives a setback in 5 minutes.
Be attentive to the child, catch this change and come to the rescue in time. Will is a very important quality, it often determines a person's success.
Ability to coexist in a team
The preschooler must necessarily attend a kindergarten, developing classes or some mugs. Socialization of the child is possible and on the playground, but for the ability to get along with the society one permanent collective is needed.
When entering the school, the age features of children of preschool age are recorded. With the child, they conduct a conversation to determine how prepared it is, and whether it is ready to join the school team.
At the preschool age, the child is waiting for two "transit points". The first - in 3 years, when the child begins to manifest will, the desire to be independent. This period is also called the period "I myself".
The second trial awaits the child in 6-7 years. When learning ceases to be a fantasy, the child faces the first difficulties. In addition, he begins to show consciousness, compares his actions with the actions of adults. If earlier it was enough to put on a hat, then now it is necessary to explain why she is, and why her father does not wear it. Be patient and remember: upholding your point of view is a very important stage in growing up.
How to promote the development of the child
First of all, every parent must learn the main rule - to give maximum attention to his child. Professional teachers are fine, but no one is able to give the child faith in themselves the way parents do. And believing in yourself, even a small man can turn mountains.
Consider the age-specific features of raising children of preschool age:
- Do not shout at the child in case of failure, do not be angry with him. Understand that it just seems like a simple matter. And for a child, reading, writing, counting is something unexplored. And if you were given something easily, your child does not have to deal with it just as easily. Let him be himself.
- Remember that the preschooler's self-esteem is slightly overestimated. Each child considers himself unique and the most-most. This is normal.
- Do not shift to someone else's shoulders what they can do themselves. Be sensitive and attentive.
- Do not delay the development of the child, but do not be too zealous. If the child does not like the account, postpone it for a month. Then try to enter it again in class. Too strong pressure can easily forever destroy a child's desire for this subject.
- Turn development into an exciting game. Children of preschool age perceive absolutely any kind of information in this form and remember it perfectly. Draw letters, add candy, show imagination and creativity in everything.
- Immerse the child in the most comfortable conditions, he will copy into his life almost all of the family.
Do we need early development?
How and when to start school, it's up to the parents. But development does not mean a constant sitting at the desk and reading smart books. A child of preschool age is very capable of creativity, through it he easily knows the world, but it is from this cognition that the development of speech, socialization, attention, will depends. In turn, the child's ability to learn depends on this.
So, undoubtedly, in the early development of a child, you contribute to its success in the future. Give him the opportunity to start as easily as possible in school.