Types of synthetic fabrics, their characteristics
Modern technologies have touched all spheres of human life. Perhaps, the textile industry is the brightest example of a science put into the service of everyday everyday life. Thanks to chemical synthesis, man has learned to obtain fibers with given properties. It is necessary to distinguish artificial and synthetic fabrics.
Synthetics are made from polymers obtained by certain chemical reactions. The raw materials for it are oil products, natural gas or coal. From synthetic fabrics with special properties they make overalls, protective clothing for extreme conditions, sports uniforms.
Artificial fibers are produced by physical processing of raw materials. The most famous example of such a fabric is viscose, obtained from cellulose (wood).
Fabrics from synthetic fibers have a number of advantages and disadvantages in comparison with natural materials.
General properties of synthetic fibers
Despite all their diversity, most of the artificial materials have common features. The merits of synthetic fabrics include the following qualities.
- Durability. Artificial fabrics have increased wear resistance, are not susceptible to decay, damage to pests and mold fungi. A special technology of bleaching and subsequent coloring of the fiber ensures color fastness. Some groups of synthetic tissues are unstable to sunlight.
- Ease. Clothing made of synthetic material weighs much less than its natural counterparts.
- Quickly dry. Most synthetic fibers do not absorb moisture or have water-repellent properties, that is, they have low hygroscopicity.
- Due to large-scale industrial production and low cost of raw materials, most artificial fabrics havelow cost. In production, high labor productivity and low cost are obtained, which stimulates the development of the industry. Many manufacturers regulate the technological characteristics of the material in accordance with the wishes of large customers.
Disadvantages are due to the fact that the artificial material can badly affect the living organism.
- Synthetics accumulate static electricity (electrified).
- There may be an allergy, an individual intolerance to chemical components.
- Most artificial tissues poorly absorb moisture - accordingly, do not absorb sweat and have low hygienic properties.
- Do not pass air - it is also important for the production of clothes and linen.
Some properties of synthetic fabrics can have both positive and negative meaning, depending on how the material is applied. For example, if the fabric does not let in air, it is unhygienic for everyday clothes. But the top overalls of such material will be very appropriate for protection from adverse weather conditions.
Manufacture of synthetic fabrics
The first patents for the invention of synthetic fibers refer to the period of the 30s of the last century. In 1932 in Germany, the production of polyvinyl chloride fiber was mastered. In 1935 in the laboratory of the American company DuPont synthesized polyamide. The material was called "nylon". Industrial production began in 1938, and a year later it was widely used in the textile industry.
In the USSR, the course on the widespread introduction of the achievements of chemical science was taken in the 1960s. Initially, synthetic products were perceived as a cheap substitute for natural fabrics, then it was used to make work clothes and protective suits. As the scientific base developed, tissues with different properties began to be created. New polymers have undeniable advantages over natural fabrics: they are lighter, stronger and more resistant to the effects of aggressive media.
Artificial and synthetic fabrics differ in the manufacturing method and in the parameters of the production economy. Raw materials for the production of synthetics are much cheaper and more affordable, that's why this industry has received a priority in development. Fiber macromolecules are synthesized from low molecular weight compounds. Modern technologies ensure the production of a material with predetermined characteristics.
Filaments are formed from melts or solutions. They can be single, complex or in the form of bundles to obtain fibers of a certain length (then yarn is produced from them). In addition to filaments, film materials and stamped products (details of footwear and clothing) form from the initial synthetic mass.
At present, several thousands of chemical fibers have been invented, and new materials appear every year. According to the chemical structure, all types of synthetic tissues are divided into two groups: carbohydrate and heterochain. Each group is divided into subgroups that have similar physical and operational properties.
The chemical chain of the macromolecule of carbon-fiber synthetic tissues consists mainly of carbon (hydrocarbon) atoms. The following subgroups are distinguished in the group:
- polyvinyl chloride;
- polyvinyl alcohol;
These are fabrics of synthetic fibers, whose molecular composition, in addition to carbon, includes atoms of other elements: oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, sulfur. Such inclusions give additional properties to the starting material.
Types of synthetic tissues heterochain group:
Lycra: polyurethane synthetic fabrics
The names used by trade corporations are: elastane, lycra, spandex, neolan, dorlastan. Polyurethane yarns are capable of reversible mechanical deformations (like rubber). Elastane is able to stretch 6-7 times, freely returning to its original state. It has a low temperature stability: when the temperature rises to +120 ° C, the fiber loses its elasticity.
Polyurethane yarns are not used in pure form - they are used as a frame, wrapping around other fibers. The material containing such a synthetic material has elasticity, it stretches well, resilient, abrasion-resistant, perfectly admits air. Things made of fabrics with the addition of polyurethane yarns do not crumple and retain their original shape, are resistant to light, retain their original color for a long time. Cloth is not recommended to strongly wring, twist, dry in stretched form.
Capron: polyamide synthetics
The material was named after the amide group, which is part of the fabric. Capron and nylon are the most famous representatives of this group. The main properties: increased strength, good shape, not rotting, easy. At one time, capron replaced silk, used for making parachutes.
The synthetic fibers of the polyamide group have low resistance to elevated temperatures (it begins to melt at +215 ° C), they turn yellow in the light and under the influence of sweat. The material does not absorb moisture and dries quickly, accumulates static electricity and poorly retains heat. From it, women's pantyhose and leggings are produced. In the composition of the fabric, capron and nylon are introduced in an amount of 10-15%, which increases the strength of natural materials without impairing their hygienic properties. Such materials produce socks and knitwear.
Other trade names of synthetic materials of the polyamide group: anid, perlon, meril, taslan, joordan and heelank.
Velsoft is a thick fabric with a pile, competing with mahre. From it sew children's clothes, dressing gowns and pajamas, things for the house (towels and blankets). The material is pleasant to the touch, it well passes air, does not crumple, does not sit down, does not shed. Resistant to washing, quickly dries. Printed pattern does not fade with time.
Lovsan: polyester fibers
Polyester synthetics have increased elasticity, wear resistance, the fabric does not sit down, do not crumple, and keep the shape well. The main advantage in comparison with other groups of synthetic fabrics is increased heat resistance (withstands over +170 ° C). The material is hard, does not absorb moisture, does not collect dust, does not burn out in the sun. In its pure form it is used for the manufacture of curtains and curtains. In a mixture with natural fibers used for the manufacture of dress and costume fabrics, as well as material for coats and artificial fur. Polyester fiber provides resistance to abrasion and creasing, and natural yarns cause hygiene, which does not have synthetic fabrics. Names of fabrics made of polyester materials: lavsan, polyester, terilene, trevira, tegal, diolen, dacron.
Fleece is a synthetic soft fabric made of polyester, similar in appearance to sheep's wool. Fleece clothing is soft, light, warm, breathable, elastic. The material is easily washed, dries quickly and does not need ironing. Fleece does not cause allergies, so it is widely used for the manufacture of children's clothing. Over time, the fabric stretches and loses its shape.
Polysatin is made from polyester in pure form or in combination with cotton. The material is dense, smooth and slightly shiny. Quickly dries, does not sit down, does not wear out, does not shed. Applied for the manufacture of bed linen, household products (curtains, tablecloths, upholstery for furniture), home clothes, ties and scarves. Very popular today, bed linen with a 3D-pattern is made from polysatina.
Acryl: polyacrylonitrile materials
By mechanical properties close to the fibers of wool, so acrylic is sometimes called "artificial wool." Synthetics are resistant to sunlight, it is heat-resistant, perfectly holds the shape. Does not absorb moisture, stiff, electrifies, wears.
Applied in combination with wool for the production of fabric for furniture, children's mattresses, sewing outerwear and making artificial fur. Acrylic does not form spools, which makes it an indispensable addition to wool yarn for knitting. Things from the combined yarn are less stretched, they are more durable and lightweight.
Trade names of polyacrylonitrile materials: acrylic, nitron, kashmilon, dronal, dolan, orlon.
Spectrum and dianema: polyolefin fibers
In this group, polyethylene and polypropylene fibers are distinguished. The lightest of all kinds of synthetics, polyolefin materials do not sink in water, they have low hygroscopicity and good thermal insulation properties, fiber extensibility is practically zero. They have low temperature stability - up to + 115 ° С. They are used for creating two-layer materials, for sewing sports and fishing clothing, filtering and upholstery materials, tarpaulins, carpets. In combination with natural fibers - for the production of underwear and hosiery.
Trade names: spectrum, dainema, tekkilon, herkulon, ulcer, found, meraklon.
Polyvinyl chloride synthetic fabrics
The material is highly resistant to chemically aggressive substances, low electrical conductivity and instability to temperature effects (it breaks down at 100 ° C). After the temperature treatment, it shrinks.
In its pure form, protective clothing is made from it. With its help, a dense synthetic fabric is obtained - artificial leather, artificial fur and carpeting are also made.
Trade names: тевирон, хлорин, виньон.
Polyvinyl alcohol fiber
This group includes wine, mtilan, vinylon, kuralon, vinalon. They have all the advantages of synthetics: durable, wear-resistant, resistant to light and temperature influences. The tensile and elasticity have average values. Distinctive feature - absorb moisture well, products from synthetic fabrics of this group have high hygroscopicity, comparable with the properties of cotton products. Under the influence of water, the wine is lengthened and slightly shrinks, its strength decreases. Compared to other chemical fibers, it is less resistant to chemical attack.
Vinol is used for making clothes, underwear, in combination with cotton and viscose - for the production of hosiery. The material does not roll down, does not wipe off, has a pleasant sheen. Lack of products from the wine - they quickly become contaminated.
Mtilan is used for the production of surgical threads.
The combination of different fibers gives interesting technological characteristics. A vivid example is the microfiber that is widely known today. It is made from a combination of nylon and polyester fibers. Microfiber does not roll, does not shed, has increased hygroscopicity, while it dries quickly. It is used for the production of knitted fabrics, woven and non-woven fabrics. Depending on the thickness of the fiber and its modification, the softness and wear resistance of the final product vary. Microfiber is not mixed with other fibers, care of the products is extremely simple - they are not afraid of washing, dry cleaning and temperature influences. Thanks to a variety of air pores, the fabric helps maintain optimal body temperature, but at the same time perfectly protects against wind. Microfiber produces sports and outerwear, home textiles, napkins and sponges for cleaning.
As we see, chemically synthesized fibers are widely used in the production of light industry goods. Of them, sportswear and overalls are manufactured, fabrics for furniture and interior decoration of premises, the whole range of everyday clothes: from underwear to materials for coats and faux fur. Modern fabrics have a number of advantages that are inaccessible to their predecessors: they can be hygroscopic, "breathing" and keep warm well. The combination of different fibers in one thread, as well as the creation of multi-layer fabrics, allows manufacturers to fully satisfy the demands of the modern world.