Speech development of preschoolers by GEF (6-7 years)
Proper formation of the child's personality is not only a matter for the parents. The tutors should take an active part in its decision.
Introduction of new norms of training
In 2013/14, all pre-school institutions moved to work on new standards (GEF). The reason for this step was the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (No. 1155, 2013) on the need to make adjustments to the work of DOs in the field of cognitive and speech development of children.
What is the purpose of GEF in kindergarten?
Speech development of preschoolers by GEF is recognized as a means for mastering the basics of communication as part of the cultural heritage of the nation, and also this constant replenishment of the vocabulary, the formation of competent, cohesive monologic and dialogical conversation. To achieve it you need creativity, the formation of intonation and sound culture of dialogue, competent phonetic hearing, the study of children's literature, the ability of the child to distinguish between different genres. Speech development of preschoolers by GEF (6-7 years) forms the preconditions for further reading and writing.
Tasks of preschool education
Speech development of preschoolers in the GEF tasks poses the following: the formation of not only the right conversation, but also the thinking of the baby. The results of the monitoring indicate that the number of preschool children with significant disabilities in the ability to speak correctly has increased recently.
It is important to timely form the speech of preschoolers, take care of its purity, prevent and correct problems that are considered deviations from the generally accepted rules and norms of the Russian language.
The tasks of preschool education (GEF)
Speech development of preschoolers by GEF (goals and tasks are briefly discussed above) is conducted in several directions:
- enriching the cognitive sphere of preschool children with the necessary information through training, observation, experimental activity;
- filling emotionally-sensual experience in the course of communication with phenomena, objects, different people;
- the systematization of information about surrounding events, the formation of a notion of the unity of the material world;
- the education of a careful attitude to nature, the consolidation of positive emotions;
- creation of conditions that will facilitate the identification and support of the interests of the preschooler, the possibility of manifesting self-reliance in speech activity;
- support the formation of cognitive processes in children.
The work of the GEF educator
The main task of any educator is the speech development of preschool children by GEF. Thanks to him, the initial development of the communicative skills of the child occurs. A full-fledged realization of this goal is the formation, by the end of the preschool age, of universal communication between the child and the people who surround him. A preschool child of older age should talk without difficulty to different age, social status, and semi-representatives of society.
Speech development of preschoolers by GEF (6-7 years) presupposes the possession of oral Russian, orientation in the course of communication to the interlocutor, the ability to select different forms and to perceive the content of the conversation.
Directions of development of a preschool child by GEF
According to the new standards, kindergartens are obliged to provide the preschoolers with the following directions of development:
- social and communicative;
- artistic and aesthetic;
On the peculiarities of cognitive development
GEF suggests the division of cognitive-speech development into two separate areas.
Under cognitive development is meant the formation of curiosity, the development of interest, activity in learning from preschoolers. As a task, the preschooler's consciousness is formed, the development of the original ideas about other people, about themselves, about different objects around, relationships, properties of objects (color, form, rhythm, sound, material, part, quantity, total, time, movement, consequences, causes).
Cognitive development of preschoolers by GEF helps to form a love for the children of their Motherland. Classes form an idea of the cultural values of the people, traditions, as well as national holidays, help to improve the understanding of the planet Earth, natural processes, phenomena, diversity of peoples and countries.
Specificity of speech development of preschool children
Speech development of preschoolers in GEF in the first group puts the task of mastering speech as a necessary means for culture and communication. Also, classes help the kids enrich the vocabulary, form a phonetic rumor.
What points should be taken into account by educators planning the speech development of preschoolers?
According to the GEF BD in the preschool period, with the help of a cognitive culture, the child develops primary ideas about the world around him. As the world grows, the image of the world changes. Do not forget that the path of cognition and development in a small person differs significantly from the views of adults who are able to perceive surrounding phenomena and objects with their own intellect, while children learn about different phenomena through emotions. Adult people prefer to process information without paying proper attention to human relationships. Preschoolers can not qualitatively and quickly process a large flow of knowledge, so for them the relationship between people plays a very large role.
Features of the development of a three-year-old
For a three-year-old child, the content of reality acts as the basis of the world view. The world of children of this age - specific individual objects, objects, phenomena. The knowledge of the world is fulfilled according to the principle: what I see, I use it, I know it. The child looks at objects from different directions. He is interested in external (Who? What?), Internal (Why? How?) Characteristics of the subject. At this age, he is not able to independently comprehend various hidden parameters. Speech development of preschoolers by GEF in the first younger group is aimed at helping in the process of learning new things, phenomena, searching for the relationship between individual natural processes.
Features of the development of the baby of the second younger group
The children of the second younger group are able to establish dependencies and the first connections between phenomena and objects, to correlate the internal and external characteristics of things, to analyze the significance of individual of them for the life of a person. The full speech development of preschool children by GEF in the second younger group allows the kids of this group to communicate with each other, learn to talk with adults.
Features of the development of a four-year-old kid
At the age of four, the formation of personality undergoes significant changes, caused by physiological processes occurring in the cerebral cortex, modifications of mental reactions, and an increased degree of mastery of speech. There is an accumulation of a valuable stock of information about the phenomena that happen around the child. It is very important for the speech development of preschool children. According to GEF, the middle group is the period when the perception of information at the verbal level is activated. Children begin to learn, to understand various interesting information about the world around them. This age assumes the formation of electoral interests in preschool children, and therefore a special development program is needed.
Features of the development of a five-year-old kid
At this age the child already has an accumulated amount of information about objects, phenomena, the surrounding world, it is important to replenish it in a timely manner. The constant speech development of preschoolers by GEF at this age makes it possible to pass to an elementary primary acquaintance with such concepts as "symbol", "time", "sign". They will be very important in the further preparation for school.
Such concepts educator introduces, carrying out the speech development of preschoolers by GEF. Its tasks are to interest the baby. For example, to form certain characters, children work with the globe, signs of traffic, months, climatic zones, group icons. A serious theme at this age is "Time". While the child has no idea what the term means. He is poorly oriented, what day is today, and also when this or that event happened. It is important for him to explain correctly and intelligibly what is tomorrow, today and yesterday.
Speech development of preschoolers by GEF is aimed at compiling stories about time, calendar. The educator, introducing the kids to these concepts, creates a real "corner of the past" in the group. As a result, the preschoolers deepen and expand their ideas about the inanimate, living nature, the relationship between them. It is important that caregivers help their students, guide them in a complex process of cognition, establish causal relationships together, and promote a positive attitude toward the world around them.
An important factor that influences the formation of the cognitive features of the child is the presence of motivation. The development of the ability of a preschooler to learn directly depends on the ability to quickly assimilate the information received. This is the speech development of preschoolers by GEF. The program "From birth to school" is the key to the successful formation of the baby. The speech of a child at preschool age develops very quickly - for a six-year-old, a "bank" of 4000 words is considered normal.
Ways to create a developing environment for preschoolers
To ensure the formation of the personality of preschoolers, it is important in all age groups to create an evolving subject-spatial environment.
In GEF DO there are clear requirements, which contribute to increased interest in preschool children. According to the standards, the developing object-spatial environment must be multifunctional, transformable, saturated, accessible, variable, and also safe. By its saturation, it fully corresponds to the age characteristics of children, as well as the content of the educational program.
One of the main conditions in the process of creating an evolving spatial-object environment is the complete correspondence of the material to the age of the toddlers. It is important and difficult to implement. GEF DOs assume an individual approach to each child, which is fully able to provide only the most experienced educator with considerable experience of working with young children.
It is important to realize that in each subsequent group the child must develop the skills obtained earlier, it is on this basis that modern educational programs for preschool children are based.
Children aged 3-5 years, who are at the stage of transition from gaming, should receive from the environment chances of developing basic skills. The patterns of development of memory, thinking, speech, attention presuppose the creation of an environment of objective activity (game situations), as well as the conditions for the development and upbringing of the individual.
In the younger group, pre-schoolers should have a variety of activities, there is a connection between play and learning. Educators of junior groups are obliged to apply in their work gaming, group, subject classes.
The middle group assumes a smooth transition from gaming to academic pursuits.
In the older group, story-role play is very important, to which special demands are made. The educator is obliged to form a subject-developing environment, to motivate preschool children to cognitive activity.
In the preparatory group, training methods are used, corresponding to the GEF, which help to prepare children for school. The level of preparation of preschoolers will depend on the success with further training.