Acute leukemia in children
Acute leukemia in children is a malignant disease. It is based on the systemic increase of the hematopoietic tissue. It is accompanied by a rejuvenation of the bone marrow.At the same time, foci of uncharacteristic, extramedullary hematopoiesis appear in the body. metaplasia.
Acute leukemia in children: causes
Finally, the nature of this disease has not been clarified to the present day. Supporters of the view that it has a tumor origin, consider it a form of blastomatosis process. Defenders of the second theory argue that leukemia is caused by a virus. Until the favorable moment, he is in a latent state. According to the clonal theory, there is a mutation of a single cell. Breeding, it creates similar leukemia. There is also a theory calling for consideration of genetic predisposition.
Acute leukemia in children: signs
The disease develops in several stages. It begins, as a rule, gradually.And only the sharpest form immediately manifests itself violently. The dominant symptoms in this period are: an increase in lymph nodes, pain in the bones and joints, their swelling, frequent nasal bleeding, recurrent fever, tonsillitis, abdominal pain, pallor, general weakness, dyspepsia, weight loss, loss of appetite. This is how small children, sick with leukemia, feel at first. In the elders, absent-mindedness, insomnia, and sometimes cough are added to these symptoms. The initial period can last for weeks or months. At the stage of full development of the disease, hemorrhagic syndrome, an increase in the spleen and liver are added to the previous symptoms. The condition of children as a whole worsens. They almost do not eat anything, do not get up, are not interested in anything. There is frequent vomiting, fever. Lymph nodes can grow in separate groups. Acute leukemia in children is rarely accompanied by a symptomatic complex of Mikulich, when both the salivary and tear glands symmetrically swell. Internal organs increase, heart tones become muffled. X-ray examination often reveals osteoporosis. In vital organs, during the period of remission, profound, irreversible changes occur.Patients are sleepy, adynamic. Sometimes there are delusions and hallucinations, then patients behave excitedly. Appetite decreases until anorexia, in the vomit masses appear blood. The boundaries of the heart expand, the tones are muffled, dyspnea, galloping rhythm, tachycardia, weak pulse. May lower extremities and face swelling. On the part of the blood there is thrombocytopenia and an extreme degree of anemia. The number of white blood cells increases sharply. Bone marrow almost entirely consists of reticular cells and other immature elements.
Acute leukemia in children: prognosis
Achievements of modern medicine can achieve complete remission in 95% of cases. If the disease does not appear for 5 years, the children are considered healthy. This happens in 70-80% of cases. It is also possible to achieve a complete remission in the second time. Only these patients can not do without bone marrow transplantation, after which the probability that they will live for a long time ranges from 35% to 65%.